|Abstract:||In the Master’s thesis, we will manufacture tactile numbers in order to assimilate numbers in mathematics. Tactile numbers will be designed for the blind and visually impaired children who are included in mainstream schools and as well for the children with intellectual disabilities who are involved in adapted programme with lower educational standard. The thesis consists of theoretical, empirical and practical part. In the theoretical starting points, the characteristics of blind and visually impaired children and children with impaired visual function are introduced. The characteristics of children with intellectual disabilities, the characteristics of tactile perception and the importance of games for learning and learning mathematics are stated in the theoretical part as well. In the first chapter, which is devoted to blind, visually impaired children and children with impaired visual function, the definition of the group and its characteristics are written in detail. Furthermore, approaches of the treatment and the education of blind, visually impaired and children with impaired visual function are described. In the next chapter, the developmental and learning characteristics of the children with intellectual disabilities are discussed. The education and the adjustments in the classroom for the children with intellectual disabilities are mentioned as well. In the following chapter, a few basic characteristics of perception, the role of the senses, the tactile-kinaesthetic development and the development of tactile perception are included. In this chapter, some exercises for developing tactile sense are described. In the following chapter, the importance of the play for learning, the goal oriented game, the importance of didactic toys, the role of an adult in the child's play and the toys, appropriate for blind, visually impaired and children with impaired visual function are described. The last chapter of the theoretical starting points is intended for learning mathematics. In this chapter, the concept of a number, acquiring first numbers, counting to ten and adapting of the sets are covered.
In the empirical part, the course and the method of manufacture of tactile numbers are presented. Moreover, used materials and the usability of the tactile numbers are described. In the research part, the objectives, the research questions, the methods, the results and the interpretation of the results obtained through the direct observation of pupils are defined.
The practical part was carried out at the primary school Gustav Šilih Maribor, namely, in the adapted programme with lower educational standard. Our purpose was to create tools and to use them in daily practice in order to teach blind and visually impaired children, children with impaired visual function and children with intellectual disabilities. In the empirical part, we wanted to determine, whether the approaches we used were appropriate and whether the materials we used were suitable. During the test, we came to the new insights and the new opportunities to expand and upgrade the manufacture of tactile numbers in the future.|