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Naslov:Kriminalistična postmortalna diagnostika v konceptu prenove mrliškopregledne službe : doktorska disertacija
Avtorji:Jevšek, Aleksander (Avtor)
Dvoršek, Anton (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Balažic, Jože (Komentor)
Datoteke:.pdf DR_Jevsek_Aleksander_1961.pdf (1,81 MB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Doktorska disertacija (m)
Tipologija:2.08 - Doktorska disertacija
Organizacija:FVV - Fakulteta za varnostne vede
Opis:Z vprašanjem smrti in z njo povezanimi psihološkimi in sociološkimi vplivi na posameznika in na družbo se poglobljeno ukvarjajo različne znanstvene discipline. Posebno mesto zaseda proučevanje smrti in njenih posledic v medicinski, pravni in kriminalistični znanosti. Znanstveno raziskovanje smrti v medicini je osredotočeno v patologijo njenih vzrokov in v iskanje preventivnih in kurativnih ukrepov za daljšanje človeškega življenja. Poleg te, brez dvoma najpomembnejše funkcije medicinske znanosti, pa se patologija in sodna medicina, kot pomembni veji medicine, s svojimi raziskavami ukvarjata s tistimi posmrtnimi znaki, ki kažejo na to, ali je človek umrl po naravni poti ali pa je smrt posledica dejanja ali ravnanja pokojnega ali koga tretjega. Če je naloga medicine, da nesporno ugotovi smrt, čas in njen vzrok, je naloga prava, da uredi pravno varstvo in pravna razmerja do smrti, pravno opredeli smrt in uredi vse njene pravne posledice. Ker gre v primeru smrti za pomembno pravno dejstvo, ne zadostuje zgolj, da je smrt nedvomno ugotovljena, ampak je za pravo ključno, da je natančno ugotovljen točen čas in vzrok smrti. Zato so okoliščine, v katerih je smrt nastopila, v pravu še kako pomembne. Poznavanje natančnega časa in vzroka smrti ima še poseben pomen v kriminalistiki in v kazenskem pravu. Pri nasilnih smrtih, kjer gre za sum storitve kaznivega dejanja, se pogostokrat na podlagi natančno ugotovljenega časa in vzroka smrti usmerja preiskava na točno določenega osumljenca kaznivega dejanja ali pa se s pomočjo preverjanja drugih pomembnih okoliščin, v katerih je smrt nastopila, oži krog domnevnih osumljencev. Natančna posmrtna diagnoza časa in vzroka smrti zahteva multidisciplinarno sodelovanje med policijo, ki ugotavlja pomembne okoliščine smrti, in zdravnikom, ki opravlja mrliški pregled trupla. Na podlagi navedenega obravnavamo postmortalno diagnostiko kot del kriminalistične diferencialne diagnoze in kot del medicinske posmrtne diagnostike. Na strokovnost in kakovost postmortalne diagnostike v marsičem vplivajo organizacijski in kognitivni dejavniki. Neustrezna organizacija dela v policiji in v zdravstvu, 6 pomanjkanje strokovnega usposabljanja in neustrezen sistem financiranja mrliškopregledne službe so zgolj nekateri od organizacijskih dejavnikov, ki lahko pomembno vplivajo na kvaliteto dela. Pomanjkanje znanj in izkušenj, napake v percepciji, ‘miselni tunel’ in negativna predispozicija pa so nekateri od množice kognitivnih dejavnikov, ki vplivajo na policiste, kriminaliste, zdravnike splošne prakse in izvedence sodne medicine, da postavijo napačno postmortalno diagnozo. Organizacijski in kognitivni dejavniki na področju mrliškopregledne službe ter njihov vpliv na kakovost kriminalistične in medicinske postmortalne diagnostike predstavljajo jedro raziskave. Analiziramo najpogostejše napačne postmortalne diagnoze preiskovalcev in zdravnikov ter ugotavljamo njihove vzroke in posledice. Ugotavljamo razlike v kakovosti ogledov krajev najdbe trupel v Sloveniji, ko ogled opravljajo policisti s policijskih postaj in tistimi ogledi, ki jih opravijo kriminalisti iz sektorjev kriminalistične policije, pri čemer iščemo organizacijske in kognitivne razloge za razlike v kvaliteti dela. Obstaja namreč največja verjetnost, da pride do napak pri ugotavljanju vzroka smrti v primerih, ko ogled kraja najdbe trupla opravljata policist in zdravnik, oba brez specialističnih znanj in izkušenj. Takšne situacije bi lahko preprečila ustrezna organizacija obeh vpletenih služb. Do napak prihaja tudi zaradi rutinskega reševanja problemov v zvezi z najdenimi trupli, ki jih je mogoče zmanjšati z ustreznimi vsebinami usposabljanj in spremembami v organizaciji obeh služb. V drugem delu raziskave z analizo pravnih ureditev mrliškopregledne službe v Nemčiji, Avstriji, na Hrvaškem in v Sloveniji ter strokovnimi stališči ekspertov kriminalistične in sodnomedicinske stroke primerljivih držav identificiramo dobre in slabe prakse. V tretjem delu raziskave z analizo a
Ključne besede:kriminalistično preiskovanje, preiskovalne napake, smrtni primeri, samomori, umori, uboji, smrtne nesreče, ogled kraja kaznivega dejanja, mrliškopregledna služba, sodna medicina, postmortalna diagnostika, forenzična patologija, doktorske disertacije
Leto izida:2014
Založnik:A. Jevšek]
Izvor:[Ljubljana
UDK:343.983+351.776.7(043.3)
COBISS_ID:2789610 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:1091
Število prenosov:289
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:Ostalo
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Skupna ocena:(0 glasov)
Vaša ocena:Ocenjevanje je dovoljeno samo prijavljenim uporabnikom.
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Criminal Post-Mortem Diagnostics in Post-Mortem Examination Service Model Development
Opis:The issue of death and the related psychological and sociological effects it has on an individual and the society are dealt with in depth by various scientific disciplines. A special place is held by the study of death and its consequences in the medical, legal and criminalistic science. Scientific research of death in medicine is focused on the pathology of its causes and on finding preventive and curative solutions for the prolongation of human life. In addition to this function of the medical science, which is without a doubt the most important one, pathology and forensic medicine, as significant branches of medicine, deal with post-mortem signs which indicate whether the person died naturally or whether the death occurred as a result of an act or conduct of the deceased or someone else. If the task of the medicine is to establish the time and cause of death beyond a reasonable doubt, then the job of the law is to regulate the legal protection and the legal relationship to death, to legally define death and to determine all its legal consequences. Since death is an important legal fact, it is not enough to only clearly determine death, but it is key for the law to accurately determine the exact time and cause of death. Therefore, the circumstances in which the death occurred are extremely important with regard to the law. Knowing the exact time and cause of death plays an important role especially in criminalistics and criminal law. In cases of violent deaths, where suspicion exists that a criminal offence has been committed, the investigation is on the basis of the established exact time and cause of death often directed towards a specific suspect of the criminal offence, or the list of alleged suspects is narrowed down based on checking other important circumstances in which death occurred. An exact post-mortem diagnosis of time and cause of death demands multidisciplinary cooperation between the police, who establish the relevant circumstances of death, and the doctor, who performs the post-mortem examination of the body. In this regard, 9 post-mortem diagnostics is dealt with as part of the criminal differential diagnosis and as part of the medical post-mortem diagnostics. Professional competence and quality of post-mortem diagnostics are in many ways affected by organizational and cognitive factors. Inadequate organization of work within the police and in health care, lack of professional training and inadequate funding system of the post-mortem examination service represent just some of the organizational factors which can have a significant impact on the quality of work. Lack of knowledge and experience, mistakes in perception, the ‘mental tunnel’ and negative predisposition are some of the many cognitive factors that can influence police officers, criminal investigators, general practitioners and experts in forensic medicine in giving an incorrect post-mortem diagnosis. Organizational and cognitive factors in the area of post-mortem examination service and their impact on the quality of criminal and medical post-mortem diagnostics represent the core of this research. We analyse the most common incorrect post-mortem diagnoses, made by investigators and doctors, and we identify their causes and consequences. We try to establish the differences in the quality of inspections of sites of body discovery in Slovenia, when the inspection is carried out by police officers from police stations, and those when inspections are performed by criminal investigators from criminal police divisions, where we focus on trying to identify organizational and cognitive reasons for the differences in the quality of work. Namely, there is a strong possibility that mistakes regarding establishing the cause of death occur in cases when inspection of the site of body discovery is done by a police officer and a doctor, both without any expert knowledge and experience. Such situations could be prevented by the proper organization of both involved services. Further, mistakes also occur due to routine problem-solving related to
Ključne besede:post-mortem examination service, criminal investigation mistakes, forensic medicine, cognitive factors, organizational factors, suicides, causes of death, fatal accidents, fatalities, post-mortem diagnosis, medical errors, forensic pathology, criminal differential diagnosis


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