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Title:DAVČNI UČINKI SPREMEMB VIŠINE OSNOVNEGA KAPITALA V DRUŽBI Z OMEJENO ODGOVORNOSTJO Z VIDIKA DRUŽBENIKOV DRUŽBE
Authors:Stepišnik, Maja (Author)
Kobal, Aleš (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Stepisnik_Maja_2014.pdf (1,66 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis (m2)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:V magistrski nalogi smo predstavili problematiko sprememb osnovnega kapitala v družbi z omejeno odgovornostjo z davčnopravnega in korporacijskopravnega vidika. Gre za kompleksno prepletanje davčne zakonodaje s korporacijskim pravom. Podrobno smo proučili davčne učinke različnih vrst sprememb osnovnega kapitala družbe in pri tem ločeno predstavili davčne učinke z vidika družbenikov, ki so fizične osebe, in davčne učinke z vidika družbenikov, ki so pravne osebe. Davčni učinki z vidika družbenikov se prvotno nanašajo na povečanje osnovnega kapitala (efektivno in nominalno), v nadaljevanju pa na področje zmanjšanja osnovnega kapitala (efektivnega, nominalnega in osnovnega kapitala z umikom poslovnega deleža). Pri prvi obravnavani problematiki smo želeli poudariti, da davčna zakonodaja nominalno povečanje osnovnega kapitala obravnava v nasprotju z določbami Zakona o gospodarskih družbah. Upošteva se namreč, da družbenik pri nominalnem povečanju osnovnega kapitala prejme nov poslovni delež. V skladu z Zakonom o gospodarskih družbah družbenik ne pridobi novega poslovnega deleža, temveč gre pri tej obliki spremembe osnovnega kapitala zgolj za spremembe abstraktnih korporacijskopravnih kategorij (osnovnega vložka) z namenom, da se ohranja proporcionalni lastniški interes v družbi. Samo dejstvo, da je družba povečala osnovni kapital iz sredstev družbe, ne vpliva na knjigovodsko vrednost poslovnega deleža, niti ne na njegovo tržno vrednost. Ko družba poveča osnovni kapital iz sredstev družbe, se določi, da ima večji nominalni znesek osnovnega kapitala. S takšnim načinom povečanja osnovnega kapitala družbe imajo družbeniki manjšo možnost izplačil iz družbe, upniki pa imajo večje jamstvo. Na osnovi pravkar navedenih sklepnih ugotovitev predlagamo upoštevanje posebnosti nominalnega povečanja osnovnega kapitala s strani davčne zakonodaje in primarno upoštevanje določb Zakona o gospodarskih družbah, kjer se za odločitev, ali gre za davčno obveznost ali ne, upošteva meritev učinkov nominalnega povečanja osnovnega kapitala v prihodnosti. V magistrski nalogi je nadalje predstavljena davčnopravna problematika financiranja družb z omejeno odgovornostjo z vidika družbenikov, pri čemer so izpostavljeni davčni učinki naknadnih vplačil z vidika družbenikov in z vidika družbe. Pri ugotavljanju davčno optimalnega načina financiranja družbe z omejeno odgovornostjo smo ugotovili, da je z vidika optimiranja davčne obremenitve dolžniško financiranje prednostni način financiranja, saj si podjetje na podlagi dolžniškega financiranja ustvarja davčni ščit. Podjetja, ki se financirajo z dolžniškim kapitalom, imajo tako manjšo davčno osnovo, višje davčne prihranke (ki se lahko namenijo za nadaljnje investiranje, izplačila družbenikom itd.), nižje stroške povprečnega stroška kapitala in večjo tržno vrednost podjetja.
Keywords:osnovni kapital, povečanje osnovnega kapitala, zmanjšanje osnovnega kapitala, spremembe osnovnega kapitala, družba z omejeno odgovornostjo, Zakonom o gospodarskih družbah, davčnopravna problematika financiranja družb z omejeno odgovornostjo, davčna zakonodaja, optimalno financiranje.
Year of publishing:2014
Publisher:[M. Stepišnik]
Source:Celje
UDC:336.2(043.2)
COBISS_ID:4684331 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:QLE4OUO4
Views:3169
Downloads:1001
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Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:TAX EFFECTS OF THE ALTERATION OF SHARE CAPITAL IN A LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF COMPANY MEMBERS
Abstract:This master's thesis outlines the issue of the changes in the share capital of limited liability companies (d.o.o.), seen from the perspective of tax and corporate law. It deals with the complex interconnection between tax legislation and corporate law. The tax implications with regard to various forms of share capital of companies were studied and separately presented from the viewpoint of the company members who are natural entities as well as the company members who are legal entities. Primarily, tax implications from the perspective of company members refer to the increase in share capital (effective and nominal), however they may also refer to the decrease in share capital (effective, nominal, the decrease in share capital by withdrawing one's share in a business). Regarding the discussed issue, it needs to be stressed that tax legislation treats the nominal increase in share capital in contradiction to the provisions of the Slovene Companies Act (ZGD-1). It is considered that, in the case of a nominal increase in share capital, a company member receives a new share in the company. According to ZGD-1, a company member does not receive a new share in the company. Instead, this type of a share capital change is merely a change of abstract categories within corporate law (a subscribed contribution), so the proportional ownership interest in the company is preserved. The mere fact that a company increases its share capital using the company's assets does not affect the book value of a share in the company nor the market value of this share. Once a company increases its share capital using the company's assets, it decides to have a larger nominal amount of share capital. By increasing the share capital of a company in this manner, the possibility of company members receiving payments from the company is reduced and, at the same time, the amount of security for creditors is increased. Based on these conclusions, I suggest that the specific features of the nominal increase of share capital be considered by tax legislation and also that the provisions of ZGD-1 be primarily considered, where the decision whether it is a tax liability or not is based on the measurement of the implications of the nominal increase of share capital in the future. This master's thesis also presents another issue within tax law, namely the financing of limited liability companies from the perspective of company members, stressing the tax implications of additional contributions by company members and by the company. When attempting to find the optimal financing of limited liability companies with regard to taxes, we discovered that when it comes to optimizing tax expenses, debt financing is the preferred type of financing because it enables the company to create a tax shield. The companies that are financed by means of debt financing therefore have a lower tax base, higher tax savings (which can then be used for further investments, they can be distributed to company members, etc.), lower WACC, and a higher market value of the company.
Keywords:changes in the share capital, limited liability companies, tax implications of the increase in share capital, tax implications of the decrease in share capital, financing of limited liability companies, optimal financing.


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