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Title:HIPOTEKA IN AKTUALNA SODNA PRAKSA
Authors:Mihinjač, Rebeka (Author)
Vrenčur, Renato (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UNI_Mihinjac_Rebeka_2014.pdf (868,02 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Hipoteka je zastavna pravica na nepremičninah. Je neposestna zastavna pravica, kar pomeni, da zastavitelj ohrani posest nad obremenjeno nepremičnino in jo lahko še naprej nemoteno uporablja. Njen predmet je torej točno določena nepremičnina, ki služi zavarovanju ene ali več točno določenih terjatev in ki zastavnega upnika pooblašča, da se za zavarovano terjatev, v kolikor mu ta ni pravočasno izpolnjena, poplača iz vrednosti zastavljene nepremičnine. Poplačilna pravica zastavnega upnika ima prednost pred vsemi drugimi upniki zastavitelja. V zvezi z nastankom je potrebno razlikovati med različnimi vrstami hipoteke. Ločimo namreč pogodbeno hipoteko, ki nastane na podlagi pravnega posla, prisilno hipoteko, ki nastane na podlagi sodne odločbe in zakonito hipoteko, ki nastane na podlagi zakona. Poleg tega poznamo tudi posebne vrste hipoteke, tj. nadhipoteko, skupno hipoteko, maksimalno hipoteko in zastavno pravico na nevpisanih nepremičninah. Ker je hipoteka knjižna stvarna pravica, se za njeno ustanovitev zahteva vpis v zemljiško knjigo, ki ima konstitutivni učinek. Izjema od navedenega je zakonita hipoteka, ki nastane v trenutku, ko so izpolnjeni zakonski pogoji. Vpis zakonite hipoteke v zemljiško knjigo ima zato le deklaratorni učinek. V kolikor s hipoteko zavarovana terjatev ob dospelosti ni plačana, se lahko hipotekarni upnik iz hipoteke poplača. V kolikor gre za pogodbeno hipoteko, mora hipotekarni upnik najprej pridobiti izvršilni naslov. Slednjega pridobi tako, da vloži hipotekarno tožbo, s katero zahteva, da se zastavljena nepremičnina proda. Če je bila hipoteka ustanovljena na podlagi neposredno izvršljivega notarskega zapisa, pa slednji že predstavlja izvršilni naslov in hipotekarni upnik lahko vloži izvršilni predlog neposredno na sodišče. Po prisilni prodaji obremenjene nepremičnine se upniki poplačajo iz izkupička od prodaje in sicer po vrstnem redu, kot so pridobili pravice. V zvezi s prenehanjem hipoteke je potrebno razlikovati med njenim materialnim in formalnim prenehanjem. Materialno hipoteka preneha, če so izpolnjeni pogoji za njen izbris iz zemljiške knjige. Vse do izbrisa iz zemljiške knjige pa hipoteka obstaja le še formalno, kar pomeni, da je hipotekarni upnik ali zastavitelj ne more več uporabiti za zavarovanje drugih terjatev. Formalno torej hipoteka preneha z izbrisom iz zemljiške knjige, njeno materialno prenehanje pa je podano, če preneha zavarovana terjatev, če hipotekarni upnik odstopi zavarovano terjatev brez hipoteke, v primeru konsolidacije, če se hipotekarni upnik hipoteki odreče, če hipoteka ugasne, če pride do dobroverne pridobitve nepremičnine, ki je obremenjena z nevpisano zakonito hipoteko ali če se obremenjena nepremičnina proda za poplačilo zavarovane terjatve.
Keywords:hipoteka, zastavna pravica na nepremičninah, neposestna zastavna pravica, hipotekarni upnik, pogodbena hipoteka, prisilna hipoteka, zakonita hipoteka, maksimalna hipoteka, skupna hipoteka, nadhipoteka
Year of publishing:2014
Publisher:[R. Mihinjač]
Source:Maribor
UDC:347.2(043.2)
COBISS_ID:4668971 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:2DLUOWIM
Views:2849
Downloads:753
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Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:MORTGAGE AND CASE LAW
Abstract:Mortgage is a lien on immovable property. It’s a non-possessory pledge, which means that the pledger retains possession of the mortgaged property and can continue uninterrupted usage. Mortgaged property has to be precisely defined. It secures one or more specific claims and authorizes the pledgee to sell the property if the secured claim is not fulfilled in time of performance and pay off himself from proceeds from the sale. When the property is sold, mortgagee has to be paid first, before other creditors of the mortgagor. We distinguish between different types of mortgages. Contractual mortgage occures on the basis of a legal transaction, than there is mortgage that occures on the basis of court decision and statutory mortgage that is created under the law. There are also special types of mortgages, such as “nadhipoteka” (there is no translation in english language), total mortgage, maximum mortgage and lien on the property that is not registered in land register. Mortgage requires land registration for its creation. Land registration has a constitutive effect. An exception is statutory lien, which starts to exist in the same moment as legal conditions are fulfilled. Signing statutory lien in the land register has therefore only a declaratory effect. If a claim that is secured with mortgage isn’t fulfilled in time of performance, mortgagee can pay off himself in the way of selling the mortgaged property. In case of a contractual mortgage, the mortgagee must bring in mortgage action, requesting that the mortgaged property has to be sold. If the mortgage is established on the basis of directly enforceable notarial protocol, mortgage action is not needed and the mortgagee can file an application with a proposal to sell the mortgaged property directly in court. After compulsory sale of the mortgaged property, creditors are payed off from the proceeds of its sale in the order as they gained their rights. Expiration of mortgage can be substantive or formal. Substantive expiration of a mortgage occures, if the conditions for its cancellation from the land register are completed. Till the cancellation from the land register, the mortgage exists only formally, which means that the mortgagee or pledger can no longer use this mortgage for securing other claims. Mortgage formally expires with cancellation from the land register, while its substantive expiration occures if secured claim no longer exists, if the mortgagee transferes secured claims to other person without a mortgage, in case of consolidation, if the mortgagee waives mortgage, if the mortgage is statute-barred, in case of a bona fide acquisition of property that is burdened by a statutory lien that is not registered in land register and in case if mortgaged property is sold to repay the secured claim.
Keywords:mortgage, lien on the property, non-possessory pledge, mortgagee, mortgagor, contractual mortgage, statutory lien, the maximum mortgage, total mortgage


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