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Naslov:PRIMERNOST IZBRANIH TRAVNIŠKIH ZELI ZA SILIRANJE, NJIHOVA SESTAVA TER ENERGIJSKA VREDNOST ZA PREŽVEKOVALCE
Avtorji:Lukač, Branko (Avtor)
Meglič, Vladimir (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Kramberger, Branko (Komentor)
Datoteke:.pdf DR_Lukac_Branko_2013.pdf (3,86 MB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Doktorska disertacija (m)
Organizacija:FKBV - Fakulteta za kmetijstvo in biosistemske vede
Opis:V prvem delu raziskave je bil namen ugotoviti sestavo zeli in njihovo neto energijsko vrednost za laktacijo (NEL) glede na staranje. Na trajnem nižinskem travinju v Blatni Brezovici in Murskih Črncih smo zbrali vzorce sedmih vrst zeli: navadni rman (Achillea millefolium L.), ozkolistni trpotec (Plantago lanceolata L), navadna lakota (Gallium mollugo L.), plazeča zlatica (Ranunculus repens L.), gomoljasta zlatica (Ranunculus bulbosus L), navadni regrat (Taraxacum officinale F. Weber) in topolistna kislica (Rumex obtusifolus L.). Ugotovili smo, da pufrska sposobnost pri navadnem rmanu in ozkolistnem trpotcu narašča s staranjem rastlin ob vseh treh oziroma štirih košnjah. Vsebnost vodotopnih ogljikovih hidratov (VOH) se je ob prvi košnji najmanj spreminjala pri navadnem rmanu (+12 g VOH kg-1 suhe snovi (SS) dnevno v Murskih Črncih) in ozkolistnem trpotcu (–0,11 g kg-1 SS dnevno v Murskih Črncih). Največje zmanjševanje VOH s staranjem smo ugotovili pri topolistni kislici (–3,40 g VOH kg-1 SS dnevno). Vsebnost surovih maščob (SM) se je ob prvi košnji najhitreje zmanjševala pri navadnem regratu (–0,54 oziroma –0,75 g SM kg-1 SS dnevno). Najmanj surovih beljakovin (SB) smo ugotovili v rastlinah iz družine zlatičnic (88 do 162 g SB kg-1 SS). Surova vlaknina (SVl) je najhitreje naraščala pri gomoljasti zlatici (4,31 g SVl kg-1 SS dnevno), najpočasneje pa pri navadnem regratu (0,29 oziroma 0,50 g SVl kg-1 SS dnevno). Največjo vsebnost NEL ob prvi košnji smo določili v plazeči zlatici (6,73–7,38 MJ NEL kg-1 SS), najmanjšo maja pri navadnem rmanu (4,36–6,29 MJ NEL kg-1 SS) in topolistni kislici (4,50–5,41 MJ NEL kg-1 SS). Vsebnost NEL se je najhitreje zmanjševala pri navadnem rmanu in gomoljasti zlatici (–0,05 MJ NEL kg-1 SS dnevno), najpočasneje pa pri ozkolistnem trpotcu in plazeči zlatici (–0,01 MJ NEL kg-1 SS dnevno). V drugem delu raziskave nas je zanimala silirna sposobnost navadnega rmana in ozkolistnega trpotca v primerjavi z mnogocvetno ljuljko (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in travniško bilnico (Festuca pratensis L.), pa tudi vpliv 10 in 30 % deleža omenjenih zeli v mešanici na kakovost fermentacije omenjenih silaž. Hkrati smo proučevali vpliv venenja na kakovost fermentacije in na vsebnost β-karotena v silažah. S podaljševanjem časa venenja in omejeno fermentacijo se je pH-vrednost zelo uvelih silaž razen mnogocvetne ljuljke zmanjšala manj kakor pH-vrednost neuvelih ali uvelih silaž (p < 0,05). Neuvele in uvele silaže mnogocvetne ljuljke so bile slabše kakovosti od silaž travniške bilnice, navadnega rmana, ozkolistnega trpotca ali mešanice travniške bilnice z 10- ali 30-odstotnim deležem zeli. Povezave med vsebnostjo β-karotena in drugimi produkti fermentacije so razen povezave s pH-vrednostjo in BK šibke, vendar statistično značilne (p < 0,05). Ugotavljamo, da rastlinska vrsta in venenje (p < 0,001), pa tudi njun interakcija (p < 0,01) vplivajo na vsebnost β-karotena v silaži. Mnogocvetna ljuljka in travniška bilnica vsebujeta v sveži snovi in tudi v silažah več β-karotena v primerjavi z ozkolistnim trpotcem ali navadnim rmanom. Največje izgube β-karotena smo ugotovili v zelo uvelih silažah navadnega rmana (–56,7 %) in ozkolistnega trpotca (51,1 %), precej manjše pa v silaži mnogocvetne ljuljke (48,4 %) in travniške bilnice (37,0 %). Primerjava izgub β-karotena med venenjem in siliranjem trav in zeli kaže, da so izgube med venenjem večje kakor med siliranjem. Rezultati kažejo, da se, razen pri travniški bilnici, največ β-karotena izgubi v prvih 24 urah venenja.
Ključne besede:siliranje, trajno travinje, zeli, kemična sestava, neto energijska vrednost
Leto izida:2013
Izvor:Maribor
Število ogledov:2040
Število prenosov:217
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:FKBV
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:SUITABILITY OF SELECTED FORBS FOR ENSILING, THEIR COMPOSITION AND ENERGY VALUE FOR RUMINANTS
Opis:The aim of the first part of the study was to determine the composition and net energy value for lactation (NEL) of selected forbs in dependence of ageing. On a permanent lowland grasslands in Blatna Brezovica and Murski Črnci we have collected seven forb species: common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L), Italian ryegrass (Gallium mollugo L.), creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens L.), bulbous buttercup (Ranunculus bulbosus L), common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F. Weber) and broad leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolus L.). The results show, that the buffering capacity (BK) in common yarrow and ribwort plantain increased with the aging of plants during all harvests. The concentration of water soluble carbohydrates (VOH) at the first cut changed the least in common yarrow (+12 g VOH kg-1 of dry matter (DM) per day in Murski Črnci) and ribwort plantain (-0.11 g VOH kg-1 of DM per day in Murski Črnci). The largest reduction of VOH with aging was found in broad leaved dock (-3.40 g VOH kg-1 of DM per day). Crude fat (SM) content at the first cut declined the most rapidly in common dandelion (-0.54 and -0.75 g SM kg-1 of DM per day). A minimum crude protein (CP) content was found in plants from the buttercup family (88 to 162 g SB kg-1 of DM). Crude fiber (CF) content has increased the most rapidly in the bulbous buttercup (4.31 g CF kg-1 of DM per day) and the slowest in the common dandelion (0.29 and 0.50 g CF kg-1 of DM per day). The highest content of NEL at the first cut was determined in creeping buttercup (6.73 to 7.38 MJ NEL kg-1 of DM), while the lowest content of NEL was found in common yarrow (4.36–6,29 MJ NEL kg-1 of DM) and broad leaved dock (4.50–5,41 MJ NEL kg-1 of DM). The NEL value declined the fastest in common yarrow and bulbous buttercup (-0.05 MJ NEL kg-1 of DM per day, respectively) and the slowest in ribwort plantain and creeping buttercup (-0.01 MJ NEL kg-1 DM per day). In the second experiment we have studied the ensiling capacity and the quality of silages from common yarrow and ribwort plantain in comparison to Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.), as well as the influence of 10 and 30% addition of the above mentioned herbs on the quality of the silage fermentation. We also studied the influence of wilting on the fermentation quality and the content of β-carotene in silages. With increasing time of wilting and reduced fermentation activity, the pH value in highly-wilted silages, with the exception of Italian ryegrass, decreased to a lesser extent than the pH value in un-wilted or wilted silages (P<0.05). The un-wilted and wilted silages of Italian ryegrass were of lower quality than silages made of meadow fescue, common yarrow, ribwort plantain or silages from a mixture of meadow fescue with addition of 10 or 30% of forbs. The correlations between the content of β-carotene and other fermentation products, with the exception of the correlation of pH value with the BK, were relatively weak but statistically significant (P <0.05). We have noted that the plant species and wilting (P <0.001), as well as their interaction (P <0.01), influenced the content of β-carotene in the silage. Italian ryegrass and meadow fescue contained more β-carotene in the fresh material as well as in silages, in comparison to the ribwort plantain and common yarrow. The largest loss of β-carotene was observed in a highly-wilted silages of common yarrow (-56.7%) and ribwort plantain (-51.1%), whereas the losses were considerably lower in the silage of Italian ryegrass (-48.4%) and meadow fescue (-37.0%). Comparison of losses of β-carotene as a consequence of wilting and ensiling of grasses and herbs shows, that the loss of β-carotene due to wilting is greater than the one caused by ensiling. The results show that, with the exception of meadow fescue, the β-carotene losses are largest during the first 24 hours of wilting.
Ključne besede:ensiling, semi-natural grassland, forbs, chemical composition, net energy value


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