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Title:Razsoljevanje vode
Authors:Lugarič, Gregor (Author)
Leitgeb, Maja (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UNI_Lugaric_Gregor_2013.pdf (2,98 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FNM - Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Abstract:V diplomskem delu so predstavljeni najbolj razširjeni procesi, ki se uporabljajo za pridobivanje pitne vode. Opisana so splošna stanja morske in sladke vode na Zemlji in našteti glavni načini razsoljevanja vode. Podrobneje so opisani in prikazani postopki razsoljevanja, ki jih delimo na tri dele: termični procesi, membranski procesi in ionski procesi. Med termičnimi procesi je najbolj razširjena večfazna ravnotežna destilacija (MSF - Multi Stage Flash), ki je globalno vodilni proces pri razsoljevanju, če kot vodni vir uporabimo samo morsko vodo. Opisana sta tudi večstopenjska destilacija (MED – Multi Effect Distillation) in kompresijski proces (VC – Vapour Compression), ki predstavljata manjši odstotek globalne uporabe. Med membranskimi procesi je vodilni proces reverzna osmoza (RO – Reverse Osmosis), ki je globalno najbolj razširjen za razsoljevanje vseh vod, razdelan pa je tudi proces elektrodialize (ED – Electrodialysis). Pri kemijskem procesu se uporablja predvsem ionska izmenjava, ki pa je zaradi velikih stroškov ne uporabljajo pogosto. Uporablja se predvsem za mehčanje vode, ni pa uporabna za čiščenje vode z višjimi stopnjami raztopljenih trdnih snovi, zaradi česar je izvzeta iz obravnave v diplomskem delu. Na kratko so tudi opisani postopki pred-obdelave in nadaljnje obdelave vode. Več pozornosti je posvečene okoljskim vidikom, energijski porabi in ekonomskemu vidiku. V eksperimentalnem delu smo poskusili čim bolj približati in poenostaviti prikaz delovanja MSF naprave, ki jo lahko učenci samostojno sestavijo v laboratoriju. Dotaknili smo se tudi najnovejših tehnologij, ki kot vir energije uporabljajo obnovljive vire energije.
Keywords:razsoljevanje, večfazna ravnotežna destilacija – MSF, večstopenjska destilacija – MED, kompresija hlapov – VC, reverzna osmoza – RO, elektrodializa – ED
Year of publishing:2013
Publisher:[G. Lugarič]
Source:Maribor
UDC:628.1(043.2)
COBISS_ID:20108552 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:LTHEFH5D
Views:3142
Downloads:463
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FNM
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Desalination
Abstract:In this thesis different desalination technologies used for getting drinking water are presented. In the beginning the facts about water in our world and all major desalination processes are presented. The main part of the theses is dedicated to the desalination processes which are divided into three parts: thermic, membrane and ion processes. The most commonly used processes for each group are analyzed. The leading thermical process in the world is Multi Stage Flash (MSF), where the main source is sea water. Two minor processes, Multi Effect Distillation (MED) and Vapour Compression (VC), are also described. Additionally, a leading membrane process Reverse Osmosis (RO), and process Electrodialysis (ED) are described. In the chemical process, the Ion exchange (IX) is not often used because of the high costs. IX is mainly used for water softening but not for cleaning with higher level of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). Therefore, IX will not be described in this thesis. Furthermore, the pre- and post-treatment water processes are mentioned, however the attention is focused on environmental, energetic and economic aspects primarily. In the experimental part of the thesis, the MSF plant is shown, as simple as possible, so the pupils can understand its function and can built it themselves in the laboratory. In the last part new desalination technologies with renewable energy consume are presented.
Keywords:desalination, Multi Stage Flash – MSF, Multi Effect Distillation – MED, Vapour Compression – VC, Reverse Osmosis – RO, Electrodialysis – ED


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