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Title:SEPARACIJA IN ANALIZA TRIGLICERIDOV IZ RAZLIČNIH SEMEN
Authors:Bigec, Klara (Author)
Škerget, Mojca (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Knez, Željko (Co-mentor)
Files:.pdf UNI_Bigec_Klara_2014.pdf (3,00 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FKKT - Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Abstract:Namen diplomske naloge je bil z različnimi ekstrakcijskimi postopki iz štirih vrst semen (sončnično, laneno, sezamovo in konopljino seme) pridobiti olja ter določiti vsebnost trigliceridov (TG) in njihove antioksidativne aktivnosti. Ekstrakcijo olj smo izvedli s štirimi različnimi ekstrakcijskimi postopki, in sicer konvencionalno z mešanjem v topilu in na Soxhlet aparatu, kjer smo kot topilo uporabili heksan ter s semikontinuirano superkritično ekstrakcijsko napravo, kjer smo kot topilo uporabili ogljikov dioksid in propan. Ekstrakcije s superkritičnim fluidom CO2 in subkritičnim fluidom propanom smo izvedli pri dveh temperaturah: 40 ºC in 60 ºC, ter tlaku 300 bar. Za posamezno seme smo določili, katera ekstrakcijska metoda prinaša največji ekstrakcijski izkoristek olja. Vsebnost TG v ekstrahiranih oljih smo določili s tekočinsko kromatografijo visoke ločljivosti (HPLC) –ELSD, antioksidativno kapaciteto za olje topne vzorce pa smo določili s foto-luminiscenčno (Photochem) metodo. Dobljeni rezultati kažejo, da imajo največji ekstrakcijski izkoristek olja sončničnega semena (50-55 ut. %). Glede na izkoristke si nato sledijo sezamovo seme (45-50 ut. %), laneno seme (30-40 ut. %) in konopljino seme (25-30 ut. %). Ekstrahirana olja vsebujejo po večini nenasičene trigliceride. Sončnično in sezamovo olje vsebuje gliceril dilinoleat – oleat (LLO), gliceril trilinoleat (LLL), gliceril trioleat (OOO) in gliceril linoleat – dioleat (LOO), torej trigliceride, ki vsebujejo linolno in oleinsko kislino. V konopljinem olju se nahajajo naslednji trigliceridi: gliceril trilinoleat (LLL), gliceril oleat – dilinolenat (OLnLn) in gliceril dilinoleat – oleat (LLO). Ti trigliceridi vsebujejo največ linolne kisline. Največji delež TG v lanenem olju predstavljata gliceril trilinolenat (LnLnLn) in gliceril oleat – dilinolenat (OLnLn). Prevladuje torej linolenska kislina. Olja iz teh semen imajo dobre antioksidativne aktivnosti, kar nakazuje na njihovo visoko vsebnost oljetopnih antioksidantov.
Keywords:semena, konvencionalna ekstrakcija, superkritična ekstrakcija, subkritična ekstrakcija, olja, trigliceridi, antioksidativna aktivnost
Year of publishing:2014
Publisher:[K. Bigec]
Source:Maribor
UDC:581.48:664.1.034(043.2)
COBISS_ID:18214678 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:TQIKFQ1D
Views:1239
Downloads:143
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Categories:KTFMB - FKKT
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:SEPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF TRIGLYCERIDES FROM VARIOUS SEEDS
Abstract:The aim of this thesis was the extraction of oils from different seeds (sunflower, flaxseed, sesame, hempseed) with four extraction techniques and determination of their triglyceride (TG) profile as well as measuring their antioxidant activity. For oil extraction four different extraction procedures have been used: conventional extraction procedures with mixing in hexane and Soxhlet extraction with hexane and supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide and propane. The extractions with a supercritical fluid CO2 and subcritical fluid propane were done at two different temperatures: 40 °C and 60 °C, with a pressure of 300 bars. Comparisson of yield of oils obtained with applied methods were made. Triglyceride content in obtained oils was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) -ELSD. The antioxidant activity of the oils was measured using photo-luminiscence (Photochem) method. The obtained results show that the maximum extraction efficiency of oil was obtained for sunflower seeds (50-55 wt. %) followed by sesame seeds (45-50 wt. %), flaxseeds (30-40 wt. %) and hempseeds (25-30 wt. %). Extracted oils contain mostly unsaturated triglycerides. Sunflower and sesame oil contain glyceryl dilinoleate - oleate (LLO), glyceryl trilinolenate (LLL), glyceryl trioleate (OOO) and glyceryl linoleate – dioleate (LOO), TG which contain linoleic and oleic acid. The hempseed oil triglycerides are glyceryl trilinoleate (LLL), glyceryl oleate – dilinolenate (OLnLn) and glyceryl dilinoleate – oleate (LLO), mostly TG of linoleic acid. The largest proportion of TG in flaxseed oil represents glyceryl trilinolenate (LnLnLn) and glyceryl oleate - dilinolenate (OLnLn) with the predominant linoleic fatty acid. Oils from these seeds have shown to have good antioxidant activity, which indicates a high content of oil-soluble antioxidants.
Keywords:seeds, conventional extraction, supercritical extraction, subcritical extraction, oils, tryglycerides, antioxidant activity


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