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Title:MALA PLASTIKA FRANCA BERNEKERJA
Authors:Zemljič, Petra (Author)
Vidmar, Polona (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UNI_Zemljic_Petra_2013.pdf (1,36 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Abstract:Franc Berneker je v generaciji slovenskih akademskih kiparjev, ki je bila kakovostno in slogovno neenotna, prvi prekinil z akademizmom ter svoj kiparski izraz obogatil s sočasnimi umetniškimi tokovi ter gibanji, hkrati pa kot sopotnik impresionistov in član kluba Sava bistveno prispeval k nastanku in uveljavitvi sodobne slovenske umetnosti. Kiparski razvoj Franca Bernekerja se je začel na pragu 20. stoletja, ko je v konservativnem akademskem okolju umetnosti še prevladoval realističen kiparski izraz, ki je dobival vso podporo premožnih meščanov. Na dunajski akademiji je še vedno prevladoval akademski realizem, podprt z neobarokom, medtem ko očitnejši modernizmi niso bili dovoljeni, vendar je v delih nekaterih umetnikov vseeno mogoče opaziti odmeve novih sočasnih slogovnih tendenc: elemente secesije, simbolizma, socialnega realizma, novega klasicizma ter oblikovne in vsebinske poteze Rodinovega kiparstva. Tudi pri analizi Bernekerjevega začetnega ustvarjanja lahko izluščimo prevladujoče vplive oziroma nove slogovne tendence, ki jim je kipar (ne)posredno sledil. Oblikovno, manj vsebinsko, se je preko močnega vpliva, ki ga je imel Rodin na sočasno evropsko kiparstvo, naslonil predvsem na Rodinovo kiparstvo Prav slikovita oziroma impresionistična modelacija, ki odseva notranje napetosti ter dinamiko figure in povzroča nemirno trepetanje svetlobe na površini ter tako bistveno razgiba figuro, je rodinovski princip, ki se ga je kipar vedno znova posluževal tako v portretih, kiparskih skupinah kot tudi spomeniških osnutkih. Vendar pa umetnine jasno dokazujejo kiparjevo sposobnost ter umetniško avtonomnost, da ne sledi zgolj izbranemu slogovnemu izrazu, temveč tako tradicionalne kot moderne kiparske usmeritve podredi svojemu umetniškemu čustvovanju in ustvarja novo celoto. Bistvena značilnost, ki zaznamuje umetnika, je namreč tematika njegovih del. S svojim osebnim lirizmom (material je želel oživiti tako, da bi postal življenje, ki ga je sam videl) in s tem povezano mehko modelirano kiparsko formo, razkrojeno s slikovnimi pobliski površine, se je odrekel akademskemu realizmu in se približal rodinovskemu izrazu. Bernekerjevo malo plastiko le formalno opredeljujejo centimetri, bolj pa njena specifična tematika in plastična struktura, ki je edinstvena v vsakem materialu in obliki. Berneker je namreč v svojih malih plastikah izkoriščal nakopičeno znanje evropske kiparske tradicije in ga podredil svojim idejam ter kiparskemu izražanju. Pomen male plastike v Bernekerjevem opusu vsekakor ni zanemarljiv, čeprav je kipar svoja najboljša dela ustvaril predvsem s portretiranjem različnih osebnosti. Portretiranju se je Berneker posvečal že od najzgodnejših študijskih let in tako ustvaril mnogo portretov, ki so v njegovem ustvarjalnem opusu najštevilčnejše zastopani. Prav v portretiranju je kontinuirano dokazoval svojo nesporno nadarjenost: prepoznamo ga lahko kot odličnega portretista s posluhom za upodobljeno osebo in njegovo notranje čustvovanje, hkrati pa je tudi oblikovno posegal po kiparskih novostih svojega časa. Ob Bernekerjevih portretih predstavljajo poetične kiparske skupine enega od vrhuncev njegovega ustvarjanja, s katerim je požel priznanje svojih sodobnikov in si utrdil svoje mesto v slovenskem kiparstvu.
Keywords:Franc Berneker, mala plastika, socialna tematika, Bernekerjeva melanholija in doživljanje sveta, simbolika in vtkanost osebnega pesimizma
Year of publishing:2013
Publisher:[P. Zemljič]
Source:Maribor
UDC:730(043.2)
COBISS_ID:20064008 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:TOUBIW39
Views:1392
Downloads:170
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Categories:FF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:FRANC BERNEKER´S SMALL SCULPTURES
Abstract:In a generation of Slovenian academic sculptors, which was qualitatively and stylistically inconsistent, Franc Berneker first broke from academism and enriched his sculptural expression with contemporary artistic currents and movements, while simultaneously contributing to the development and promotion of contemporary Slovenian art as a companion of the impressionists and a member of the club Sava. The sculptural development of Franc Berneker began on the threshold of the 20th century, when the conservative academic art environment was dominated by a realistic sculptural expression, which got full support of wealthy citizens. At the Viennese Academy, academic realism, supported by neo-baroque, was still dominant, while evident modernism was not allowed. However, echoes of new, simultaneous stylistic tendencies could be seen in the works of some artists: elements of secession (art noveau), symbolism, social realism, neoclassicism and the design and contextual influences of Rodin's sculptures. When analyzing Berneker's initial creations, we can identify the dominant influences or new stylistic tendencies, which he (in)directly followed. The design, less the content, leaned primarily on Rodin's sculptures, over the strong influence Rodin had on European sculpture. The colourful, impressionistic creation of forms, reflecting internal tensions and figure dynamics that causes restless flickering of light on the surface and so enlivens the figure, is a principle of Rodin, which the sculptor repeatedly used on his portraits, sculptural groups and sketches of monuments. The artwork is however a clear proof of the sculptor's ability and artistic autonomy, not to merely follow the chosen stylistic expression, but to subjugate both traditional and modern stylistic directions to his own artistic sensation, thus creating a new whole. The essential characteristic feature of the artist is the subject of his work. Through personal lyricism (wanting to revive the material to become the life he himself saw) and related soft sculptural form, decomposed with picturesque flashes of the surface, he gave up academic realism and approached Rodin's expressions. Berneker's small sculpture is only formally defined by centimetres, and more by the specific thematic and plastic structure, which is unique in any material or form. Berneker exploited the accumulated knowledge of European sculptural tradition and through his small sculpture, subjected it to his ideas and sculptural expression. The importance of small sculpture in Berneker's opus is certainly not negligible, even though the sculptor created his best works primarily by portraying different personalities. Berneker was devoted to portraiture since his earliest years of study and thus created many portraits, which make for the most numerable part of his opus. It is also the portraiture where he continuously proved his undeniable talent: he can be recognized as an excellent portraitist with sensitivity for the depicted person and his inner feelings, while also reaching towards the new sculptural innovations of his time. Alongside Berneker's portraits, his poetical sculptural groups make for one of the highlights of his creations, with which he garnered recognition of his contemporaries, and strengthened his place in the Slovenian sculpture.
Keywords:Franc Berneker, small sculptures, social characteristics, Berneker’s melancholy and acepting of the Word, symbolism and personal pesimism


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