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Naslov:WOODROW WILSON: OD PROFESORJA DO PREDSEDNIKA
Avtorji:Nenić, Dalibor (Avtor)
Klemenčič, Matjaž (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf UNI_Nenic_Dalibor_2013.pdf (2,03 MB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Diplomsko delo (m5)
Tipologija:2.11 - Diplomsko delo
Organizacija:FF - Filozofska fakulteta
Opis:Thomas Woodrow Wilson se je rodil 28. decembra 1856 v mestu Staunton (Virginija), ZDA, kot tretji otrok zakoncema Wilson. V mladosti ni kazal znakov nadarjenosti, saj je imel težave z branjem. Splošno sprejeta domneva je, da je imel disleksijo. Kljub bolezni se je pri sedemnajstih letih vpisal na kolidž Davidson, ki ga je obiskoval samo eno leto. Naslednje leto se je vpisal na kolidž v New Jerseyju, kjer je diplomiral leta 1879. Študij je nadaljeval na Univerzi v Virginii, kjer je študiral pravo. Čeprav v drugem letniku ni obiskoval predavanj, je študij končal uspešno. Leta 1881 je delal kot odvetnik v Atlanti (Georgia). Po kratkotrajni odvetniški praksi je nadaljeval s študijem na Univerzi Johns Hopkins, kjer je leta 1886 pridobil naziv doktorja. Že leta 1885 se je zaposlil na kolidžu Bryn Mawr, kjer je ostal tri leta. Profesorsko kariero je nadaljeval na Univerzi Wesleyan. Leta 1890 je dobil ponudbo s kolidža New Jersey, kjer je ostal do leta 1910. Priljubljenost med študenti, vizionarska narava ter ugled, ki ga je imel pri kolegih profesorjih ter upravnemu odboru kolidža, sta mu omogočila, da je bil leta 1902 imenovan za rektorja univerze. Njegovo kariero kot rektorja sta obeležila tako uspeh kot neuspeh. Njegov reformni program, ki ga je začel izvajati leta 1902, je imel takojšne učinke na kvaliteto študija ter intelektualno raven univerze. Leta 1906 je pri gradnji novega Princetona naletel na oviro, saj ga je zadela kap (druga po letu 1896). Največji projekt, socialna in infrastukturna reorganizacija univerze, je še ležal pred njim. Z infrastrukturno reformo je posegel v tradicijo univerze, kar mnogim profesorjem in članom upravnega odbora ni bilo po godu. Soočen z odporom, se je podal v boj za svojo vizijo univerzitetnega študija in univerze, v boj, ki ga je izgubil. V toku boja je prišlo do pomembnejše »reforme«, saj se je prelevil iz konservativnega demokrata v progresivnega. Ta sprememba mu je omogočila, da se je lahko vrnil k svoji največji strasti – politiki. Zaradi pozornosti, ki jo je pritegnil boj na Princetonu, so privrženci Demokratske stranke v njem prepoznali naslednjega guvernerja zvezne države New Jersey. Demokratska stranka ga je leta 1910 nominirala za guvernerja New Jerseya. Kot guverner je zaprisegel februarja 1911. Na položaju je ostal samo dve leti. Kmalu po inavguraciji za guvernerja se je njegovo ime omenjalo kot ime možnega predsedniškega kandidata na volitvah leta 1912. Na predsedniških volitvah je kot demokratski kandidat premagal Theodorja Roosevelta ter Williama Howarda Tafta in postal 28. predsednik ZDA. Iz politične anonimnosti se je v dveh letih dvignil do najvišjega položaja v državi. Njegov prvi mandat je bil v znamenju notranjih reform ter vojaškega posredovanja v Mehiki. Zakonodajni program je obsegal reformo carinske stopnje, bančnega sistema, protimonopolne zakonodaje ter vrsto progresivnih zakonodajnih predlogov. Drugi mandat je bil v znamenju Prve svetovne vojne, ki je izbruhnila v Evropi. Čeprav so ZDA sprva razglasile nevtralnost, so jih vpletenost v ekonomske tokove vojne ter nemški podmorniški napadi pripeljali do vstopa v vojno. Posledica vojne, po kateri se v največji meri omenja ime Woodrowa Wilsona, je bilo Društvo narodov. Ideja o mednarodni organizaciji, ki bi skrbela za mir, je bila sprva le ideja, do konca leta 1919 pa je postala političen boj za obstanek ali propad enega človeka. Njegovo zavzemanje za organizacijo ga je popeljalo na pot, s katere se je vrnil kot bolnik. 2. oktobra 1919 ga je zadela možganska kap, ki ga je spremenila v bolnika s predsedniškim mandatom. Posledično ZDA niso nikoli vstopile v Društvo narodov. Zadnja leta življenja je preživel v Washingtonu, kjer je umrl 3. februarja 1924.
Ključne besede:Woodrow Wilson, Princeton, profesor, rektor, guverner, New Jersey, predsednik, Mehika, Underwood-Simmonsova carinska stopnja, Claytonov zakon, Zakon o zveznih rezervah, nevtralnost, Prva svetovna vojna, Mirovna konferenca, Društvo narodov.
Leto izida:2013
Založnik:[D. Nenić]
Izvor:Maribor
UDK:93/94(043.2)
COBISS_ID:20043528 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:PF6ZEMTA
Število ogledov:1480
Število prenosov:109
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:WOODROW WILSON: FROM PROFESSOR TO PRESIDENT
Opis:Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born on December 28, 1856 in Staunton, Virginia, United States of America. His humble beginnings, medical difficulties in early life did not foresee 28th U.S. president. His formal education began at Davidson College, continued at College of New Jersey where he finished his studies in 1879. Next year he was enrolled at University of Virginia. After successfully finishing law study, he practiced law in Atlanta, Georgia for one year. His dissapointment in law was reason for his return to studies. He enrolled at Johns Hopkins University, where he got his Ph.D in 1886. He started his career as a college professor at Bryn Mawr College, where he taught for 3 years. His excellent work as professor was recognized and got him a post as professor at Wesleyan University in 1888, where he taught for 2 years. In 1890 he was appointed as professor at College of New Jersey. During his teaching career he wrote numerus works which made him an estabilshed professor in U.S. In 1902 his energetic and visionary mind was put to a test. On October 25, 1902 he was inaugurated as President of Princeton University. Immediately he rose to the occasion. Through his reform program, he lifted educational and intelectual standards of the university. Halfway through reform program he suffered a stroke (second after 1896), which took away part of his sight. Despite being in a bad medical shape, he took on the biggest reform, that would prove to be his downfall – Quad Plan. His plan for the biggest social and infrastructural reform in university history meant that the ways of the old days must change. His stand brought even bigger change, his political transformation from conservative democrat to a progessive one. After his unsuccessful struggle with a rival group at Princeton, he resigned. New chapter in life was open for his greatest love – politics. In 1910 Democratic party nominated him as a candidate for governor of New Jersey. He won on election day and became political star over night. When he was sworn in as governor of New Jersey, his name was already mentioned as a candidate for a presidential nomination by the Democratic party for presidential elections in 1912. He served as governor for 2 years, where he showcased his progressive ideas and his political thinking, which would become his blueprint for White House. In 1912 presidential election he won in a three way contest with Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft to become 28th president of U.S. His two terms as president were marked by accomplishments in domestic politics and a failure in foreign politics. First mandate was dominated by domestic reform (Underwood-Simmons tariff, Federal Reserve Act, Clayton Act), war in Mexico and his change of thinking toward war. Second term was dominated by foreign affairs, chiefly First World War as it broke out in Europe. Initial response from U.S. was neutrality. German submarine warfare forced U.S. Government to take decisive action which led to entry of U.S. into war. Entrance into war brought birth to the idea of League of Nations. His enthusiastical approach to this idea caused his downfall. After his participation at Versailles Peace Conference 1919, where he drafted the Covenant of the organization, he began his final political fight in the U.S. A strong opposition to the idea had majority in Congress. His fight with members of the U.S. Senat was of a short spell, because on October 2, 1919 he suffered a stroke. For the rest of his term he did not participate in political life of U.S. the way he did in previous 6 years. He retired in Washington, D.C. where he died February 3, 1924.
Ključne besede:Woodrow Wilson, Princeton, Professor, President of University, Governor, New Jersey, President, Mexico, Underwood-Simmons Tariff, Clayton Act, Federal Reserve Act, Neutrality, First World War, Paris Peace Conference, League of Nations.


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