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Title:Obvladovanje pojava trihotecenskih mikotoksinov (deoksinivalenol in nivalenol) v neindustrijski verigi pridelave in predelave krušnih žit
Authors:Kolmanič, Aleš (Author)
Lešnik, Mario (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf DR_Kolmanic_Ales_2013.pdf (1,90 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Dissertation (m)
Organization:FKBV - Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences
Abstract:Da bi opravili analizo spreminjanja vsebnosti trihotecenskih mikotoksinov deoksinivalenol (DON) in nivalenol (NIV) v pridelovalni in predelovalni verigi, smo pšenico pridelovali v poljskih poskusih na majhnih parcelicah, jo poželi in očistili z različnimi napravami za čiščenje, nato smo jo zmleli v različne vrste moke in nazadnje spekli kruh. Izvedli smo tudi poskus skladiščenja moke v različnih skladiščnih razmerah. Štiri kultivarje pšenice z različno stopnjo odpornosti (tolerantnosti) na okužbe z glivami, ki povzročajo fuzariozo klasa (FHB), smo gojili v poljskih poskusih. Med cvetenjem smo pšenico okužili s sporami gliv iz rodu Fusarium. Požeto zrnje smo prečistili s pomočjo posebne čistilne naprave, ki je ločila zrnje v štiri velikostne razrede (F1 > 2,4 mm, F2 2,0–2,4 mm, F3 1,8–2,0 mm, F4 < 1,8 mm). Zrnje vsakega velikostnega razreda smo ročno ločili na štiri frakcije glede na pojav in intenziteto vidnih znamenj bolezni FHB (zrnje brez vsakih znamenj, zrnje s spremembo barve in brez sprememb v obliki, zrnje s spremembo barve in zmernimi spremembami v obliki ter zrnje s spremembo barve in velikimi spremembami v obliki). Vsebnost DON in NIV v zrnju različnih frakcij smo določili z uporabo tekočinske kromatografije (HPLC-UV). Izvedene so bile primerjave med vsebnostjo DON v zrnju pred čiščenjem in vsebnostjo v ločenih frakcijah po čiščenju. Stopnja učinkovitosti čiščenja (stopnja zmanjševanja vsebnosti DON ob čiščenju) je bila višja pri zmerno odpornem in občutljivem kultivarju kot pri FHB-tolerantnem kultivarju. Očiščeno zrnje brez vidnih znamenj okužb je pri tolerantnem kultivarju vsebovalo dvakrat več DON (870–1350 µg/kg) kot zrnje enake frakcije pri zmerno tolerantnem kultivarju (160–570 µg/kg) in primerljivo količino kot pri na FHB občutljivem kultivarju (905–1140 µg/kg). Rezultati poskusa kažejo na obstoj FHB-tolerantnih pšeničnih kultivarjev, ki imajo lahko velik del zrnja brez vidnih vizualnih znamenj okužb, ki lahko kljub odsotnosti znamenj okužb vsebujejo visoke vsebnosti DON. Takšnega zrnja pri postopkih priprave za mletje ne moremo odstraniti s standardnimi postopki čiščenja zrnja. Takšni tolerantni kultivarji pšenice lahko pripomorejo k zmanjšanju izgub pridelka zaradi FHB, vendar niso primerni za proizvodnjo polnozrnate moke v neindustrijskih predelovalnih sistemih. Poskus z mletjem in peko kruha je pokazal, da ta postopka značilno vplivata na vsebnost DON in NIV v kruhu. Preučeval se je vpliv treh mlevskih tehnik (standardno industrijsko mletje – IM, mlin kladivar – KL in tradicionalni mlevski kamen – MK) ter dveh načinov peke (v industrijski peči in v keramični krušni peči). Začetna vsebnost DON v zrnju je bila 1400–1900 µg/kg ter NIV 130–200 µg/kg in se je po mletju v tri tipe moke v moki gibala med 310–370 µg/kg DON in <50–70 µg/kg NIV pri industrijski moki – IM, 1060–1400 µg/kg DON in 60–87 µg/kg NIV v industrijski polnozrnati moki – KL ter 1100–1770 µg/kg DON in 80–95 µg/kg NIV v tradicionalni polnozrnati moki – MK. Povprečno zmanjšanje vsebnosti DON med peko kruha je bilo po 70-minutni peki (195–235 °C) 47,2 % pri peki v industrijski peči ter 48,7 % pri peki v keramični peči. Vsebnosti DON v kruhu so bile po peki v industrijski peči iz IM pod mejo 500 µg/kg, medtem ko so vrednosti pri kruhu, pripravljenem iz polnozrnate tradicionalne moke in pečenem v krušni peči gibale med 850 in 950 µg/kg. Rezultati poskusa s skladiščenjem moke v različni embalaži so pokazali, da ni bilo statistično značilnih razlik v spreminjanju vsebnosti DON v moki med skladiščenjem pri skladiščenju pri 10 °C in 25 °C. Po 120-dnevnem skladiščenju so se vsebnosti DON in NIV zmanjšale za 0–29 % glede na začetne vrednosti in v odvisnosti od uporabljene embalaže. Največja redukcija vsebnosti mikotoksinov smo opazili pri KL- in MK-moki, pakirani v papirnate vrečke in skladiščeni pri 25 °C. Najmanjše zmanjšanje je bilo pri IM-moki, pakirani v zatesnjene plastičn
Keywords:mikotoksini, deoksinivalenol, pšenica, zrnje, kultivar, čiščenje, mletje, predelava, polnozrnata moka, ohranjanje toksinov, skladiščenje moke
Year of publishing:2013
Source:Maribor
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:UHNUHGWL
Views:2714
Downloads:358
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Categories:FKBV
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Management of trichothecene mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol and nivalenol) in non-industrial cereal production and processing chain
Abstract:To analyze the variation of content of trichothecene mycotoxins deoxyinivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) within the cereal production and processing chain wheat was grown on small experimental plots. Grain was harvested, cleaned by different types of cleaning devices and processed to different types of flours from which bread was baked. Additionally storage of flours under different storage regimes was performed. Four wheat cultivars with different level of tolerance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were grown in small plots and were inoculated with spores of Fusarium fungi during the anthesis to promote development of FHB. The harvested grain was cleaned by special cleaner which separated grain in 4 size fractions (F1 > 2.4mm, F2 2.0–2.4mm, F3 1.8–2.0mm, F4 < 1.8mm). All of the four grain size fractions were divided manually further in 4 sub-fractions according to the rate of FHB symptom expression (grain without any visible symptoms, grain with changes of colour without changes of shape, grain with changes in colour and moderate changes in shape or size and heavily infected malformed grain). Deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grain of different fractions was determined by HPLC-UV analysis. A comparisons between initial DON concentration before cleaning and DON concentration in individual fractions after cleaning were done. The cleaning efficacy (rate of DON concentration reduction) due to the cleaning and separating of grain in size fractions was higher in semi tolerant and susceptible cultivars than in FHB tolerant cultivar. In consequence of the low cleaning efficiency, cleaned grin of tolerant cultivar, without any symptom of FHB, contained twice more DON (870––1350 µg/kg) than cleaned and visually healthy grain of semi tolerant cultivar (160–570 µg/kg) and contained comparable amount of DON as susceptible cultivar (905–1140 µg/kg). Results of trial demonstrate the existence of FHB tolerant cultivar which can bear a high portion of visually healthy grain containing high levels of DON. That grain can not be removed during the standard grain cleaning process. Such tolerant cultivars can contribute a lot to minimisation of yield loss due the FHB, yet they are not suitable for utilisation in the whole-grain wheat flour production. Experiment with milling and baking has showed, that this procedures significantly affect retention of trichothecene toxins (DON and NIV). Impact of three milling techniques (industrial roller-grinder – IRG, grain hammer crasher – IHC, traditional millstone –OMS) and two baking techniques (industrial oven, traditional ceramic stove heated by wood) was observed. Initial values of DON and NIV in grain sample (2500 kg) ranged from 1400–1900 µg/kg and 130–200µg/kg, respectively, and were after processing 310–370µg/kg and <50–70µg/kg in standard industrial flour, 1060–1400 µg/kg and 60–87 µg/kg in industrial wholegrain flour and 1100–1770 µg/kg and 80–95 µg/kg in traditional wholegrain fluor, respectively. Six diferent types of bread samples were prepared from this flours and analysed. The average reduction in DON concentration after baking (70 min. at 195–235 °C) was 47.2 % for bread baked in the industrial oven and 48.7 % for bread baked in the ceramic stove. Concentrations of DON in bread from industrial flour baked in industrial oven were under 500 µg/kg, but values in bread prepared from traditional wholegrain flour were higher (850–950 µg/kg). In the flour storage experiment, we didn’t notice any significant differences between storing flour at 10 °C and 25 °C. After 120 days of storage, the concentrations of DON and NIV decreased between 0 % and 29 % compared to the initial values, depending on the combination of experimental factors. The greatest decrease in mycotoxin concentration was observed in the IHC and OMS flours packaged in paper bags and stored at 25 °C. The smallest decrease in mycotoxin concentration was observed in the IRG flours packaged in sealed plastic bags and stored at 10 °C. Statistical analysis showed that the level of
Keywords:mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, wheat, grain, cultivar, cleaning, milling, millstone, retention, whole-grain flour, wheat storage


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