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Title:Uporaba hevristik pri reševanju problemov in odločanju : magistrsko delo
Authors:ID Hozjan, Urška (Author)
ID Lobnikar, Branko (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf MAG_Hozjan_Urska_2012.pdf (527,53 KB)
MD5: 6FAA35614DA42A5DD70B8332E4889A0C
PID: 20.500.12556/dkum/d0c16bf3-cd4b-4c20-ac4f-8e4202a0fe28
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Typology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:Hevristike so zavedne ali nezavedne kognitivne strategije za reševanje problemov, za katere je značilno neupoštevanje dela informacij. Na tak način hitreje in z manjšimi stroški pridemo do optimalne rešitve (Gigerenzer in Gaissmaier, 2011). Ker si z uporabo hevristik prihranimo veliko časa in napora, so v preteklosti bili mnenja, da rešitve, pridobljene s pomočjo hevristik, v veliko večji meri vodijo do napak in pristranosti kot »racionalne« rešitve, kot jih definirajo logični in statistični modeli odločanja. Vendarle pa je zanimivo pogledati, kako dejansko delujejo kognitivne hevristike v današnjem negotovem svetu, nasičenem z informacijami. Zato, preden sprejmemo tezo, da »merjenje čez palec«, kot radi rečejo hevristikam, ni učinkovita metoda pri iskanju rešitev, raje poglejmo, katere so sploh tiste hevristike, ki jih ljudje uporabljajo in v katerih situacijah ter kdaj naj se raje zanesejo na hevristike kot pa na kompleksnejše strategije. Sodobni avtorji so mnenja, da hevristike ne dajejo samo »dovolj dobre« rešitve, temveč so v določenih okoliščinah celo bolj točne in natančnejše kot kompleksne metode. V magistrski nalogi bodo predstavljene strategije za reševanje problemov, med katere spadajo tudi hevristike, ki jih bomo podrobneje razčlenili, predstavili vrste hevristik ter prikazali njihovo uporabnost na različnih področjih. Opisali bomo faze v procesu odločanja ter opredelili vlogo hevristik pri tem. Ponazorili bomo pozitivne, pa tudi morebitne negativne posledice uporabe hevristik, ki vodijo v pristranosti. Pri tem se bomo oprli na predpostavke v obstoječi domači in tuji literaturi in na raziskave, ki analizirajo omenjeno tematiko.
Keywords:reševanje problemov, odločanje, modeli odločanja, hevristike, hevristično odločanje, intuicija, magistrska dela
Year of publishing:2012
Publisher:U. Hozjan]
Source:[Ljubljana
PID:20.500.12556/DKUM-37949 New window
UDC:005.59+005.311.6
COBISS.SI-ID:2508778 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:6GNLYFE5
Publication date in DKUM:17.12.2012
Views:4037
Downloads:1278
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FVV
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Secondary language

Language:English
Abstract:Heuristics are conscious or unconscious cognitive problem-solving strategies characterised by ignoring part of the information. In this way, optimal solutions are reached faster and at lower costs (Gigerenzer and Gaissmaier, 2011). Because heuristics save time and effort, it was considered in the past that solutions obtained on this basis are much more likely to lead to mistakes and biases than “rational” solutions as defined by logical and statistical decision-making models. Nevertheless, it is interesting to observe how cognitive heuristics actually function in today's uncertain, information-packed world. Therefore, before accepting the hypothesis that the “rule of thumb”, as heuristics are often referred to, is not an effective method for finding solutions, one should first look at which are the types of heuristics people use and in what kind of situations, and when one should rely on heuristics instead of more complex strategies. Modern authors are of the opinion that not only do heuristics provide good-enough solutions but they are also, in certain circumstances, even more precise and accurate than complex methods. This master’s thesis presents problem-solving strategies, including heuristics, which are analysed in more detail, types of heuristics and their applicability in various fields. It describes phases in the decision-making process and defines the role of heuristics therein. It shows positive as well as potential negative consequences of using heuristics that lead to biasness. In this context, it relies on assumptions taken from existing Slovenian and foreign literature, and from research analyses of the relevant topic.


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