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Title:Vpliv osebnostne razvitosti otroka na verodostojnost pričanja : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija
Authors:Berčič, Sabina (Author)
Areh, Igor (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UNI_Bercic_Sabina_2012.pdf (457,46 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FVV - Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
Abstract:V diplomski nalogi je opisano, kako osebnostni razvoj otroka vpliva na verodostojnost pričanja. Diplomska naloga predstavlja, kako se razvijajo otrokove sposobnosti, kako naj bi potekalo spraševanje otroka, kako otroci odgovarjajo na vprašanja in česa bi se morali preiskovalci izogibati, da ne bi prišlo do neveljavnosti pričanja. Zavedati se moramo, da otroci nimajo toliko znanja o življenju in svetu na splošno. Njihove sposobnosti spominjanja, mišljenja, govora in čustvovanja so še vedno v procesu razvoja. Prav tako se otroci drugače znajdejo v prostoru, drugače dojemajo čas, njihova pozornost še ni tako dobro usmerjena kot pri odraslih, manj pa so razviti tudi moralni kodeksi, ki jih šele spoznavajo. Vse te razvojne sposobnosti je potrebno v pogovoru z otrokom upoštevati. Intervju je torej potrebno prilagoditi otrokovi ravni spoznavnega, čustvenega in moralnega razvoja. Vsega tega pa ne smemo posplošiti in upoštevati le otrokove starosti; upoštevati moramo individualne razlike med otroki. Otroke imamo pogosto za neverodostojne priče. Razlogi za to so, da imajo otroci slabše zmožnosti za spominjanje, njihov spomin je preveč dovzeten in občutljiv za sugestije in zavajanja, poleg tega pa težko ločijo domišljijsko od realnega. V zadnjem času so raziskave pokazale, da je otrokov spomin na splošno dokaj zanesljiv, še posebno pri intervjuvanju z odprtimi vprašanji, in zelo odporen na sugestije. Otroke tako lahko sprejmemo za zanesljive in verodostojne priče, vendar pa moramo biti pozorni na to, kako se pogovarjamo z otrokom, kakšna vprašanja jim postavljamo in na to, da z otrokom vzpostavimo dober odnos, saj je veljavnost otrokovih izjav največkrat odvisna od usposobljenosti spraševalcev, ki pa je praviloma pomanjkljiva.
Keywords:pričanje, otroci, verodostojnost, raziskave, diplomske naloge
Year of publishing:2012
Publisher:S. Berčič]
Source:[Ljubljana
UDC:159.9:340.6(043.2)
COBISS_ID:2542058 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:XDU21M59
Views:946
Downloads:176
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:FVV
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Secondary language

Language:English
Abstract:In my thesis I am going to describe how a child’s personal development affects the credibility of testimony. I am going to explain how children’s skills develop, how a child should be interviewed, how children respond to questions and what type of questions should investigators avoid to ask to prevent invalid testimony. We must be aware that children do not know much about life and the world in general. Their ability to memorise, think, speak and feel is still in the process of development. Children also comprehend space and time differently, their attention is not as focused as the adults and their moral codes are less developed since they are in the process of getting to know them. All these development skills must be taken into consideration when talking to children. The interview must therefore be adjusted to the level of a child’s cognitive, emotional and moral development. However, all these characteristics should not be generalised and it would be wrong to consider only a child’s age since the individual differences of children must also be taken into account. Children are often considered to be unreliable witnesses. This is because children have smaller memory capacity, their memory is too susceptible and sensitive to suggestions and also to deceit. Furthermore, it is very difficult for them to distinguish their imagination from reality. Recent researches, however, have shown that a child’s memory is generally quite reliable, especially during an interview with open-ended questions, and very resistant to suggestions. We can therefore acknowledge children as reliable and credible witnesses, but we must be careful how we speak to them and what kind of questions we ask them. It is also very important that we establish a good rapport, because the validity of a child’s statement often depends on the competence of investigators which is usually insufficient.


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