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Naslov:Kriminalistični vidiki odkrivanja in dokazovanja spolnih zlorab otrok : doktorska disertacija
Avtorji:Frangež, Danijela (Avtor)
Dvoršek, Anton (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf DR_Frangez_Danijela_2012.pdf (3,36 MB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Doktorska disertacija (m)
Tipologija:2.08 - Doktorska disertacija
Organizacija:FVV - Fakulteta za varnostne vede
Opis:Spolno nasilje nad otroki je problem družbe in problem posameznika. Kljub vse večji občutljivosti pri zaznavi tovrstnih kaznivih dejanj so otroci v sodobni družbi še vedno žrtve spolne zlorabe. Pri tem imajo pomembno vlogo stereotipi in miti, ki zmanjšujejo odgovornost osumljenca ter krivdo pripisujejo otrokom, hkrati pa ovirajo odkrivanje, preiskovanje in dokazovanje spolnih zlorab otrok. V doktorski disertaciji predstavljamo raziskavo, s katero smo ugotavljali kriminalistične vidike odkrivanja in dokazovanja spolnih zlorab otrok v Sloveniji. Raziskava, pri kateri smo uporabili kvalitativne in kvantitativne raziskovalne metode, je bila izvedena v Sloveniji v dveh delih, in sicer v letih 2010 in 2011. V prvem delu smo s pregledom policijskih, tožilskih in sodnih spisov analizirali 70 naključno izbranih primerov spolnega napada na osebo, mlajšo od petnajst let, iz leta 2003. Primeri so bili obravnavani od prijave do zaključka v predkazenskem ali kazenskem postopku, kar na podlagi rezultatov omogoča širši vpogled v obravnavano problematiko ter identifikacijo ključnih problemov in dilem pri odkrivanju, preiskovanju in dokazovanju spolnih zlorab otrok. V drugem delu smo z usmerjenim skupinskim intervjujem tožilcev in kriminalistov pridobili vpogled v prakso preiskovanja in dokazovanja spolnih zlorab otrok ter s pomočjo izkušenj udeležencev spoznali probleme, s katerimi se srečujejo pri svojem delu. Omejitve raziskave so bile predvsem pomanjkanje podatkov v nekaterih policijskih, tožilskih in sodnih spisih ter neudeležba sodnikov na usmerjenem skupinskem intervjuju. Rezultati raziskave kažejo, da so osumljenci večinoma moški. Povprečna starost vseh osumljencev je bila ob začetku zlorabe 34,7 let, ob prijavi pa 36,6 let. Žrtve so v večini ženskega spola. Največ žrtev obeh spolov je bilo ob zlorabi starih med 7 in 13 let. Najpogostejši kraj izvršitve spolne zlorabe otrok so zaprti prostori v domačem okolju. Največ zlorab se zgodi trikrat ali večkrat, kar nakazuje, da je spolna zloraba, ki traja daljše obdobje, proces, v katerem so žrtve spolno zlorabljene v daljšem obdobju. 84 % prijav spolnih zlorab otroka je bilo podanih zoper osumljence, ki so otroka poznali pred zlorabo. Sum na spolno zlorabo otroka v družini je bil podan v 39 %. Med oblikami spolne zlorabe otrok je bilo najpogostejše otipavanje. Fizična sila je bila prisotna v 19 % vseh primerov, pri čemer žrtve v 61 % primerov po zlorabi niso kazale fizičnih znakov zlorabe. O spolni zlorabi je najpogosteje spregovoril otrok. Ugotovitve kažejo, da otroci o spolni zlorabi lažje spregovorijo, ko domnevni storilci niso člani družine. V kazenskem postopku je najpomembnejše ugotoviti verodostojnost žrtvine izpovedi, saj v večini primerov ni materialnih dokazov. Razlogi za odsotnost materialnih dokazov so predvsem v tem, da tovrstna dejanja niso prijavljena takoj po storitvi, prav tako se večina spolnih zlorab zgodi v zaprtih prostorih v domačem okolju, zaradi česar je dokazovanje še dodatno oteženo. Za obsodilno sodbo so pomembni predvsem izpoved žrtve o spolni zlorabi, izvedensko mnenje, v katerem izvedenec poda mnenje, ali je otrok doživel spolno zlorabo, in prisotnost materialnih, osebnih in posrednih dokazov. Ugotovitve raziskave kažejo, da materialni dokazi vplivajo na rezultat sojenja, saj v večini primerov, ki se ne končajo z obsodilno sodbo, kazenske ovadbe temeljijo le na osebnih dokazih. Vendar pa ne moremo potrditi, da v primerih, ki se končajo z obsodilno sodbo, kazenske ovadbe večinoma temeljijo na materialnih dokazih. Kot tudi ne moremo potrditi, da so v večini primerov, ki se končajo z obsodilno sodbo in izrečeno kaznijo zapora, prisotni materialni dokazi. Lahko pa potrdimo, da v večini primerov, ki se končajo s pogojno sodbo, materialni dokazi niso prisotni. Na rezultat sojenja obtoženčevo priznanje in otrokova starost nimata vpliva, pomemben vpliv pa imata izvedensko mnenje in suverenost pričanja izvedenca na sodišču. Še posebej v primerih, pri katerih ni drugih dokazov in je treba
Ključne besede:otroci, spolne zlorabe, spolno nasilje, otroška pornografija, internet, odkrivanje, preiskovanje, dokazovanje, preprečevanje, kriminalistika, diplomske naloge
Leto izida:2012
Založnik:D. Frangež]
Izvor:[Ljubljana
UDK:343.5
COBISS_ID:262638080 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:2CH0D5V0
Število ogledov:5474
Število prenosov:1111
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Področja:Ostalo
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION ASPECTS OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE EVIDENCE DETECTION AND COLLECTION
Opis:Sexual violence against children is a problem of society and of individuals. In spite of modern society’s growing detection sensitivity to child sexual abuse, children are still often victims of such criminal offenses. Stereotypes and myths concerning child sexual abuse are still very important because they tend to alleviate offenders’ responsibility by placing the blame on the victim and obstruct adequate evidence detection and collection. Qualitative and quantitative research methods used in examining the research question of this doctoral thesis focusing on criminal investigation aspects of child sexual abuse evidence detection and collection provided a more comprehensive insight into the research problem and increased the validity and reliability of the data. The study conducted in 2010 and 2011 in Slovenia was divided into two parts. The first, a review of 70 randomly selected cases from 2003, focused on examining police, prosecution and court records pertaining to all the stages of the procedure, from the detection to the conclusion in a pre-trial or trial procedure, provided a broader insight into this problem and helped identify the key problems and dilemmas in detection, investigation and providing of evidence of child sexual abuse. In the second part, a focus group interview with prosecutors and criminal investigators of child sexual abuse cases was conducted to gain insight into the practice of investigating and proving child sexual abuse, as well as to learn, through their experience, about the problems they encounter in their work. The study limitations were mainly the lack of data in some police, prosecutors' and court records, and the absence of judges in the focus group interview. The study indicated that the suspects are mostly men aged 34.7 years at the beginning of the abuse and 36.6 years at the disclosure, on the average. The victims, mostly females, were between 7 and 13 years of age. The most common place of child sexual abuse was a closed site in domestic settings. Most of the abuse spanned three or more episodes, which indicates that child sexual abuse is a process in which the victims are sexually abused over a longer period of time. Some 84 percent of child sexual abuse suspects were familiar with the child before the abuse. However, child sexual abuse within the family was detected in 39 per cent of cases. The most frequent form of child sexual abuse was touching. Physical force was used in 19 percent of all cases, but in 61 percent of the cases the victims did not show any physical signs of abuse. Child sexual abuse was most often disclosed by the victims themselves, and they most often disclosed the abuse also in the cases where the reporters were adults. The findings indicated that child sexual abuse victims are more comfortable to disclose abuse when the alleged perpetrators are not family members. In criminal proceedings, it is important to determine credibility of the victim's testimony because in most cases physical evidence is not present. The reasons for a lack of evidence lie primarily in the fact that such offenses are not reported immediately after the abuse and that the great majority of them occur within closed sites of domestic settings, which additionally obstructs evidence detection and collection. The judgement of conviction is influenced by a victim’s testimony on the particular instance of sexual abuse, an expert’s opinion on the child’s alleged sexual abuse, as well as on the presence of any material, personal and circumstantial evidence. The research indicated that the presence of material evidence influences the outcome of the trial, because in most cases not ending with a conviction criminal charges are based only on personal evidence. However, the hypothesis that the criminal charges in the majority of cases that end with a conviction are based on material evidence cannot be confirmed. Nor can we confirm the hypothesis that in most cases ending with a conviction and imprisonment material evidence is present. However, the data confirm the hypothesis that in
Ključne besede:sexual violence, sexual abuse, children, detection, criminal investigation, proving, criminalistics


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