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Title:POSLOVNA POGAJANJA Z JAPONCI
Authors:Jamšek, Tadeja (Author)
Završnik, Bruno (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Potočan, Vojko (Co-mentor)
Files:.pdf MAG_Jamsek_Tadeja_2011.pdf (847,81 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:EPF - Faculty of Business and Economics
Abstract:V tej magistrski nalogi smo se ukvarjali s poslovnimi pogajanji na Japonskem. Japonska, ki je bila dolgo časa izolirana družba na otoku, izžareva veliko specifičnih značilnosti, ki se precej razlikujejo od evropske ali ameriške družbe, pa tudi drugih azijskih družb. Japonska je hierarhična družba, kjer se družbeni odnosi gradijo na osnovi spoštovanja starejših in nadrejenih. Posameznik v družbi nima večje vloge, saj je poudarek na kolektivnosti, zato tudi v pogajanjih nastopajo kot skupina, ki lahko šteje tudi do deset članov. Svoje pogajalce izbirajo glede na status in položaj, ki ga ima oseba v podjetju, pri tem pa za ženske za pogajalsko mizo ni prostora. Pogajanja z Japonci po navadi zahtevajo veliko časa, saj dajejo Japonci ogromno poudarka na podrobnosti v vseh pogajalskih fazah. Japonci so znani tudi po tem, da pri poslovanju nikoli ne tvegajo in so izjemno previdni. Vsaka njihova odločitev je vedno skupinsko sprejeta s soglasjem vseh hierarhičnih ravni od spodaj navzgor in utemeljena z zanesljivimi dejstvi ter analizami. Za Japonce je značilen miren, vljuden pogajalski slog, znani so tudi kot najmanj agresivni pogajalci. Med pogajanji težko rečejo »ne«, saj je njihov slog zelo posreden, zato se tudi izogibajo kazanju čustev. Veljajo za poštene in iskrene pogajalce, včasih pa delujejo precej pasivno, zaradi molčečnosti, ki pa ni mišljena kot tehnika zavajanja nasprotne strani, čeprav nekateri avtorji menijo drugače. Japonski pogajalci lahko tujce zmedejo tudi s postavljanjem zelo podrobnih in ponavljajočih se vprašanj, sami pa ob tem ne dajo veliko povratnih informacij. Na splošno iščejo Japonci harmonijo v odnosu, čeprav ni lahko pridobiti njihovega zaupanja. Za njih je zelo pomembno ohranjanje statusa in »obraza« oziroma časti in ugleda medtem, ko v želji po obojestranskem uspehu v integrativnih pogajanjih iščejo konsenz. Da bi mednarodni pogajalec uspel v pogajanjih z Japonci, je potrebno veliko potrpežljivosti, prepričljivosti, vljudnosti, skromnosti, osredotočanje na dolgoročne odnose in spoštovanje kulture. Če pri tem pride do spora, ni priporočljivo vključevati odvetnikov, saj slednje vidijo le kot sredstvo pri spodbujanju ciljev ene stranke in ne prispeva k harmoničnemu poslovnemu okolju. Na Japonskem imajo ustni dogovori še zmeraj velik pomen, čeprav se večinoma uporabljajo pisne pogodbe. Več kot sam podpis, jim pomeni izpolnjena obljuba, zvestoba in harmonija v odnosu, ki obenem predstavlja nekatere vrline Samurajev. Na pogajalčevo ozadje pa v največji meri vpliva kultura, saj le-ta pove kako in zakaj se ljudje obnašajo tako kot se. Japonsko uvrščamo med visoko kontekstne kulture, za katero je v komunikaciji značilno prepletanje besed, govorice telesa, posrednost in čustvena zadržanost. Besede in kretnje v različnih kulturah nimajo enakega pomena. Ko Japonci na vprašanje odgovorijo pritrdilno, to nikakor ne pomeni, da se s sogovornikom strinjajo, ampak samo, da razumejo povedano. Prav tako smeh ne pomeni vedno prijaznosti in odobritve, ampak lahko pomeni zadrego ali pomanjkanje razumevanja. Vsaka napaka v pogajanjih ima posledice na obeh straneh pogajalske mize, zato se od tujcev pričakuje, da poznajo protokolarna pravila, kadar vstopajo na Japonsko. Poslovne obleke morajo biti zelo konzervativne, pri pozdravu pa morajo biti zapeti vsi gumbi na obleki. Posebna protokolarna pravila veljajo tudi za izmenjavo vizitk, kjer je potreben priklon in sprejem vizitke z obema rokama v višini prsi, nakar je potrebno z vizitko ravnati enako spoštljivo kot z osebo, ki jo je izročila. Tudi pri izmenjavi daril je potrebna posebna pazljivost, saj lahko napačno darilo v napačnih okoliščinah meji na podkupovanje. V zadnjem času se govori tudi o razvoju japonskega managementa, ki vpliva na kulturo pogajanj in postavlja pod vprašaj tradicionalne lastnosti japonskega poslovanja in namiguje na približevanje ameriškemu načinu poslovanja. Teorija konvergence v tem smislu poudarja približevanje zahodnim državam, zaradi star
Keywords:Japonska, poslovna pogajanja, hierarhična družba, kolektivizem, soglasne odločitve, pogajalski slog, harmonija, Samuraji, kultura, protokol, management, konvergenčna teorija.
Year of publishing:2011
Publisher:[T. Jamšek]
Source:Maribor
UDC:005
COBISS_ID:10962716 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:RVDQOBAC
Views:2333
Downloads:373
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Categories:EPF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:BUSINESS NEGOTIATIONS WITH JAPANESE
Abstract:In this master thesis we were writing about business negotiations in Japan. Japan, which has long been isolated society on the island, expresses a lot of specific features that are quite different from European or U.S., as well as other Asian societies. Japan is a hierarchical society in which social relations are built on the basis of respect for older people and superiors. The individual has no greater role in society, because of the emphasis on collectivity, also in negotiations they are acting as a group, which can integrate up to ten members. They choose their negotiation team regarding the status and position held by a person in the firm, while for women there is no room at the negotiating table. Negotiations with the Japanese usually require a lot of time, as they are giving a lot of emphasis on details in all phases of negotiation process. The Japanese are also famous for the fact that they never risk in the business and are extremely careful. Each of their collective decision is always made with the consensus in all hierarchical levels from the bottom up and is substantiated by reliable facts and analysis. For the Japanese it is typical calm, polite negotiation style, they are also known as the least aggressive negotiators. During the negotiations they have difficulty to say “no” because of their indirect style, and for the same reason they are avoiding showing the emotions. They are fair and honest negotiators, but are sometimes quite passive, due to secrecy, but this is not meant to be their misleading technique, although some authors believe otherwise. Japanese negotiators may also confuse foreigners by asking very detailed and repeated questions, but at the same time they are not revealing any information. In general, Japanese are looking for harmony in the relationship, even though it is not easy to obtain their trust. For them it is very important to preserve the status and “face”, which means honor and reputation, while in desire for mutual success in integrative negotiations they are seeking a consensus. If international negotiator wants to succeed in negotiating with the Japanese, it takes a lot of patience, persuasion, politeness, modesty, focusing on long-term relationship and respect for the culture. If conflict occurs, it is not advisable to include lawyers, because they believe lawyers are promoting the objectives of one party and do not contribute to the harmonious business environment. In Japan, oral commitments are still of great importance, although they mainly use written contracts. More than a signed contract, the fulfilled promise, faithfulness and harmony in the relationship have a greater meaning, which also presents some of the virtues of the Samurai. Negotiator`s background is largely affected by culture, as it tells how and why people behave the way they do. Japan is ranked among the highly contextual culture, so communication includes interplay of words, body language and emotional reticence. Words and gestures in different cultures have different meanings. When the Japanese answer the question with a “yes”, this does not mean that they agree with the recipient, but they only understand what was said. Laughing also does not always mean kindness and approval, but it can be a lack of understanding or embarrassment. Any error in the negotiation has implications on both sides of the negotiating table, so foreigners are expected to know the protocol rules when entering Japan. Business suits should be very conservative, with all buttons done while greeting. Special protocol rules also apply for exchanging business cards that require a bow and receiving with both hands at chest height. With the same respect as dealing with business cards, it is necessary to behave with a person that hand it over. Even in the exchange of gifts it is necessary to be careful, because a wrong gift given in the wrong circumstances can verge on corruption. In a more recent research there are stories about development of the Japanese management, which affects the culture of negotiation
Keywords:Japan, business negotiations, hierarchical society, collectivism, consensus decision, negotiating style, harmony, Samurai, culture, protocol, management, convergence theory.


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