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Title:UPORABA SPLOŠNIH PRAVIL CIVILNEGA PRAVA PRI SKLENITVI POGODBE O ZAPOSLITVI
Authors:Poredoš Tropenauer, Nataša (Author)
Korpič-Horvat, Etelka (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Keresteš, Tomaž (Co-mentor)
Files:.pdf MAG_Poredos_Tropenauer_Natasa_2011.pdf (1,14 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis (m2)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Zgodovinsko gledano, je bilo delovno pravo del civilnega prava. Uveljavljeno je bilo stališče, da delovno razmerje nastane s službeno pogodbo, s katero se je ena stranka za plačilo, zavezala drugi stranki nekaj dati, storiti, dopustiti. Z razvojem kapitalizma pa je postala pomembna tudi delavčeva osebnost, prav tako se je v delovno razmerje začela vmešavati država. Delovno pravo je postalo del javnega in ne več samo zasebnega prava. Delovno razmerje med delavcem in delodajalcem nastane s sklenitvijo pogodbe o zaposlitvi, ki jo podrobno ureja Zakon o delovnih razmerjih (v nadaljevanju ZDR), ki v 11. členu, med drugim določa, da se pri sklepanju pogodbe o zaposlitvi smiselno uporabljajo pravila civilnega prava. Zaradi svoje narave in namena, je ugotoviti, da sta stranki pogodbe o zaposlitvi precej bolj omejeni, kot pa stranki pogodbe civilnega prava, kjer velja avtonomija volje in stranki lahko medsebojno razmerje uredita drugače kot pa določa zakon, omejeni sta samo z ustavo, prisilnimi predpisi in moralnimi načeli, ter seveda temeljnimi načeli obligacijskega prava. Načelo dispozitivnosti je pri sklepanju pogodbe o zaposlitvi omejeno z načelom omejitve avtonomije delavca in delodajalca, prisilnimi predpisi in nenazadnje s temeljnimi načeli civilnega prava. Stranki pogodbe o zaposlitvi nista v enakopravnem položaju, kot to načeloma velja za stranki civilnega prava. Seveda pa stranki pogodbe o zaposlitvi lahko svoje pravice in obveznosti uredita drugače kot določa zakonodaja, upoštevaje pravilo »v korist delavca«. Razlog za omejitev avtonomije je varstvo šibkejše stranke, saj bi brez te javnopravne omejitve obstajala neenakost strank pogodbenega razmerja. Do veljave bi prišla volja pogodbeno močnejše stranke, s čimer bi se s sklenjeno pogodbo o zaposlitvi uzakonilo izkoriščanje in podvrženost pogojem, ki bi jih postavil delodajalec. Večja in pomembnejša je vloga države, ki nujno vpliva na pogodbeno svobodo, kot pa na področju civilnega prava. Uporabnost obligacijskih pravil pri sklepanju pogodbe o zaposlitvi je omejena, ker je potrebno upoštevati samo naravo delovnega razmerja, vendar pa se kljub temu v določenih primerih uporabljajo pravila obligacijskega prava. Tako se zlasti upoštevajo obligacijska določila o sposobnosti strank skleniti pogodbo o zaposlitvi, pri predpostavkah za sklenitev pogodbe o zaposlitvi, ponudbi za sklenitev pogodbe, pri pogajanjih, pri sprejemu ponudbe, pri času in kraju sklenitve pogodbe, glede pogojev in rokov, itd. V kolikor pa pride pri sklepanju pogodbe o zaposlitvi do določenih nepravilnosti bodisi glede oblike, napake volje, bodisi če pogodba o zaposlitvi nasprotuje načelom morale, ustavi in prisilnim predpisom, je pogodba o zaposlitvi neveljavna. Ob tem pa je vedno treba imeti v vidu, kaj je bil odločilen nagib za sklenitev pogodbe o zaposlitvi, saj gre pri sklenitvi pogodbe o zaposlitvi za svoboden dogovor delavca in delodajalca, ki pa mora izražati njuno pravo voljo skleniti pogodbo o zaposlitvi in se tako pri razlagi pogodbe o zaposlitvi pogosto uporabi milejša sankcija kot je izpodbojnost ali celo ničnost pogodbe o zaposlitvi. Našteti instituti so povezani s civilnim pravom, kar kaže na to, da kljub temu, da je delovno pravo šlo v razvoju svojo pot, ni čisto izgubilo povezave s civilnim pravom, zato je pomembno, da je v ZDR vnesena določba 11. člena, ki omogoča povezavo med delovnim in civilnim pravom. Praktično povezavo med delovnim in civilnim pravo, glede sklenitve pogodbe o zaposlitvi, pa kreirajo sodišča. Pri odločanju in oblikovanju sodne prakse se morajo upoštevati strokovni in zlasti življenjski dejavniki, saj sodišča s svojimi odločitvami razvijajo in kreirajo pravo in ga v posameznih primerih tudi konkretizirajo. Pri uporabi sodne prakse sem opazila, da je namen delovnih in socialnih sodišč predvsem čim hitrejša rešitev posameznega spora in upoštevanje, da je delavec šibkejša pogodbena stranka, kateri naj se omogoči sodno varstvo in uživanje delovno pravne zaščite.
Keywords:Civilno pravo, delovno pravo, pogodba o zaposlitvi, stranke pogodbe, sposobnost strank, napake volje, zmota, prevara, zvijača, ničnost, izpodbojnost, delna ničnost, konverzija, konvalidacija, čas, kraj, ponudba, sprejem ponudbe, pogajanja, predpogodba, pogoj, rok, obličnost, predmet, subsidiarnost, smiselnost, avtonomija.
Year of publishing:2010
Publisher:[N. Poredoš Tropenauer]
Source:Maribor
UDC:349.222(043.2)
COBISS_ID:4194091 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:V3IP9UGP
Views:6046
Downloads:915
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Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:THE USE OF COMMON CIVIL LAW RULES AT THE CONCLUSION OF THE WORK CONTRACT
Abstract:Historically labor law was part of civil low. It was worth that the employment relationship arises with the work contract. With the work contract one party committed to the other party to give her something, to do something for her or to allow something, in return for payment. With the development of the capitalism the importance of the workers personality and the role of the state gain weight. The work relationship between the employee and the employer arises with the conclusion of the work contract, which is covered in detail in the Labor law (sl: Zakon o delovnih razmerij-ZDR). This law among other things determines that also the rules of the civil law have to be taken in to account in the conclusion of the work contract. Because of its nature and cause we can establish, that the parties in the work contract are much more limited in comparison with the parties in the civil law contract. In the civil law contract the autonomy of the will plays an important role and the parties can arrange their relationship otherwise as the law determines it. The parties in the civil law contract are limited just with the constitution, the mandatory rules, the moral principles and the fundamental principles of the obligational law. In the conclusion of the work contract the disposition principle is limited with the limitation principle of the employee’s and the employer’s autonomy, the mandatory rules and the fundamental principles of the civil law. The parties in the work contract are not in an equal position as this is normal for the parties in the civil law contract. The parties in the work contract can arrange their rights and obligation in a different way as the legislation determines. They just have to take in to account the »in the benefit of the employee« rule. The reason for the restriction of the autonomy is the protection of the weaker party, because without this public law restriction the parties would be in an unequal position. Otherwise the will of the stronger party would prevail and the work contract would enact the exploitation and the susceptibility of conditions, provided by the employer. Despite, that the use of obligational rules in the conclusion of the work contract is limited, the rules are used in some cases, which are: the capabilities of the parties to sign the work contract, assumptions for the conclusion of the work contract, the offer for the conclusion of the work contract, the negotiations, the acceptance of the offer, the time and the place of the conclusion of the work contract, the conditions and deadlines. We also have to take in to consideration that the labor law determents some exceptions. The work contract is invalid in case there are some deficits in the form of the contract, if there are errors of will and if the contract objects moral principles, the constitutions or enforced regulations. But we always have to consider the reason why the work contract was signed and because of that we use lighter measures when in comes to the interpretation of the work contract. The enumerated institutions are connected with the civil law, what shows that despite that the labor law became independent it’s still linked with the civil law. Because of that article 11. of the Labor law is very important, which allows the connection between the labor and the civil law. When it comes to the conclusion of the work contract the practical link between the labor and the civil law is determent by the courts. In the decision making process of court cases the courts have to consider life and professional factors, because with their decision they develop and create law. In the use of court cases I noticed, that the aim of labor and social courts is the solution of individual disputes and the consideration, that the employee is the weaker contract party. Because of that the employees have to provide with judicial protection and legal labor protection.
Keywords:Civil law, labor law, work contract, parties of the contract, capability of the parties, error of will, error, deception, trick, cancellation, voidability, part cancellation, convertion, convalidation, time, place, offer, accept of the offer, negotiation, precontract, condition, deadline, legalization of the contract, subject, subsidiarity, viability, autonomy.


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