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Title:KROG MULTILATERALNIH TRGOVINSKIH POGAJANJ SVETOVNE TRGOVINSKE ORGANIZACIJE "DOHA RAZVOJNA AGENDA" - CILJI IN IZZIVI
Authors:Žmavc, Vesna (Author)
Korez Vide, Romana (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UNI_Zmavc_Vesna_2010.pdf (819,12 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Organization:EPF - Faculty of Business and Economics
Abstract:STO je prostor oziroma institucija, ki pomaga državam, da uredijo probleme mednarodne trgovine. Nastala je 1. januarja 1995 in sicer na podlagi GATT-a. GATT se je v glavnem ukvarjal s trgovino z blagom, STO se ukvarja s trgovino v storitvah in s trgovanjem v zvezi z izumi, stvaritvami in modeli. Naloge Svetovne trgovinske organizacije so zagotoviti stabilnost, predvidljivost in čim večjo sprostitev mednarodnih trgovinskih tokov. Značilnosti STO so: univerzalnost organizacije, dograjen način reševanja mednarodnih trgovinskih sporov, možnost spremembe načina glasovanja, strožji in trdneje postavljeni kriteriji. Načela STO so: trgovina brez diskriminacije, prosta trgovina, predvidljivost, promoviranje poštene konkurence, spodbujanje razvojne in gospodarske reforme. GATT je nastal kot posledica želje, da bi ustanovili Mednarodno trgovinsko organizacijo. Želeli so oblikovati organizacijo, ki naj bi poleg Mednarodnega denarnega sklada in Svetovne banke za obnovo in razvoj predstavljala enega izmed treh stebrov Bretton-Woodske institucije. Njen osnovni namen naj bi bil zagotavljanje stabilnega in predvidljivega mednarodnega trgovinskega okolja, ki bo omogočalo nadaljnjo liberalizacijo in rast svetovne trgovine ter rast zaposlovanja in investicij. V okviru GATT-a so potekali naslednji krogi pogajanj: prvi krog pogajanj v Ženevi, drugi krog pogajanj v Annecycu, tretji krog pogajanj v Torqayu, četrti krog pogajanj v Ženevi, Kennedyjev krog pogajanj, Tokijski krog pogajanj in Urugvajski krog pogajanj. Krog pogajanj v Dohi je bil ustanovljen na četrti ministrski konferenci Svetovne trgovinske organizacije v Dohi, v Katarju novembra leta 2001. Vlade so se strinjale, da se bodo pogajale o dodatnih carinskih znižanjih (s posebnim osredotočenjem na izvoz držav v razvoju), o vključevanju obstoječih pogajanj o storitvah v Dohin krog pogajanj in o uveljavljanju pomembne liberalizacije trgovine kmetijskih proizvodov. V kmetijstvu so se strinjali, da bodo zmanjšali ovire vstopa na trg, da bodo odstranili subvencije za kmetijski izvoz in zmanjšali subvencije domače proizvodnje. Vlade so se strinjale, da bodo raziskale vidike odnosa med trgovino in okoljem. Ključna področja pogajanj v Dohi so: razvoj, kmetijstvo, storitve in okolje. Razlogi za podaljševanje pogajanj v Dohi so: odstranitev carin, kmetijska blaginja, večanje produktivnosti, trgovina med državami v razvoju in izboljšan dostop do trga. Cilji Dohe so predvsem v kmetijstvu zmanjšati vse oblike izvoznih subvencij in domače podpore za trgovino, pri storitvah liberalizirati vse kategorije storitev, pri industrijskih izdelkih zmanjšati carine, na področju regionalnih trgovinskih sporazumov izboljšati postopke pravil STO in izboljšati izvedbo mehanizma za reševanje sporov. Za Doho predstavljajo izziv regionalne agende, saj so se te še vedno ukvarjale s težavami globalne socialne izključenosti. To so bile predvsem afriške, karibske in pacifiške države.
Keywords:Svetovna trgovinska organizacija, GATT, GATS, Doha, mednarodna trgovina, krogi pogajanj, kmetijstvo, carine, investicije, storitve, ministrska konferenca, pogajanja.
Year of publishing:2010
Publisher:[V. Žmavc]
Source:Maribor
UDC:339.9
COBISS_ID:10386716 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:Q4XQYAUL
Views:1825
Downloads:116
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Categories:EPF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATION ROUND OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION "THE DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA" AIMS AND CHALLENGES
Abstract:WTO is a place or institution that helps countries to take care of their problems in international trade. It was established on January 1st 1995 based on GATT. GATT was mainly dealing with trade in goods; the WTO is dealing with trade in services and trading with inventions, creations, and models. The WTO has to ensure stability, predictability, and the releasement of international trade flows which has to be as big as possible. The features of WTO are: the universality of the organization, the upgraded way of solving international trade conflicts, the possibility of changing the way of voting, rigorous and stronger set criteria. The principles of WTO are: trade without discrimination, free trade, predictability, promoting fair competition, encouraging the development and economic reform. GATT was established as a result of a wish to establish the International trade organization. They wanted to create an organization that would (alongside with the International monetary fund and the World Bank for recovery and development) represent one of the three pillars of Bretton Woods’s institution. The main purpose of WTO should be ensuring a stable and predictable international trade environment which would make possible further liberalization and the growth of world trade and the growth of employment and investment. Under GATT the following rounds happened: the first round in Geneva, the second round in Annecycu, the third round in Torquay, the fourth round in Geneva, the Kennedy Round, the Tokyo Round and the Uruguay Round. The Doha Round was established at the forth ministerial conference of the WTO in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. The governments agreed to negotiate about additional tariff cuts (with a special focus on exports of developing countries), about including the remaining negotiations on services in the Doha round and about the enforcement of important trade liberalization of agricultural products. They agreed about reducing market access barriers in the agriculture, about the elimination of the subsidies for agricultural export, and about reducing the subsidies of domestic production. The governments agreed to research the aspects of the relationship between trade and environment. The key areas of the negotiations in Doha are: development, agriculture, services, and environment. The reasons for the extension of the negotiations in Doha are: no tariffs, farm welfare, productivity boost, trade between developing countries, and better market access. The Doha goals in agriculture are to lower all forms of export subsidies and domestic support in trade, to liberalize all categories of services, to lower tariffs in industrial products, to improve the procedures of WTO rules in regional trade agreements, and to improve the implementation of the dispute settlement mechanism. For Doha the challenges are regional agendas because they are still working on problems with global social elimination. These were in African, Caribbean and Pacific countries.
Keywords:The World Trade Organisation, GATT, GATS, Doha, international trade, rounds, agriculture, tariffs, investments, services, ministerial conference, negotiations.


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