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Title:NUJNI DELEŽ ABSOLUTNIH DEDIČEV
Authors:Vrtovec, Nataša (Author)
Kraljić, Suzana (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UNI_Vrtovec_Natasa_2010.pdf (644,71 KB)
MD5: F7001B3DC1B71D5FDC456636B5932159
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Nujni delež je institut, ki omejuje zapustnikovo svobodo razpolaganja s svojim premoženjem. Omejuje tako njegovo svobodo razpolaganja mortis causa (tj. z oporočnimi razpolaganji) kot tudi razpolaganje inter vivos (tj. z neodplačnimi razpolaganji oziroma darili v času njegovega življenja). V primeru, da zapustnik z oporočnimi razpolaganji ali z darili prekorači vrednost razpoložljivega dela zapuščine (če torej načne ali celo izčrpa nujni delež posameznega nujnega dediča), pride do t.i. prikrajšanja nujnega deleža. V takem primeru se na izrecno zahtevo nujnega dediča, ki je prikrajšan, zmanjšajo oporočna razpolaganja, če pa to ne zadošča, se vrnejo tudi darila. Institut nujnega deleža je bil ustanovljen kot vmesna rešitev med dvema skrajnostima, in sicer na eni strani sistemom popolne prostosti testiranja (ta velja danes v anglosaškem pravu), kjer lahko lastnik prosto razpolaga s svojo lastnino tako med živimi kot tudi za primer smrti, in sistemom, kjer ima rodbina zakonito dedno pravico, ki ji je zapustnikova volja ne more odvzeti. Slednji je veljal v starem germanskem pravu, vendar ni prešel v nobeno današnje pravo. Ta dva skrajna sistema ustrezata dvema težnjama, ki se pojavljata pri dedovanju. Zapustniku je namreč do tega, da bi popolnoma prosto razpolagal s svojo lastnino, družina pa ima interes, da dobi zapustnikovo premoženje zase. Zaradi pomanjkljivosti enega in drugega sistema se je že v rimskem pravu kot vmesna rešitev, ki je najbolj skladna s stvarnostjo in najbolj ustreza obema težnjama, razvilo pravo nujnih dedičev, ki se je ohranilo vse do danes. Ustanovo nujnega deleža je namreč sprejela večina sedanjih modernih pravnih redov. Je pa institut v različnih državah različno urejen, glede na to, ali daje več poudarka prostosti testiranja ali težnjam nujnih dedičev. V rimskem pravu se je institut nujnega deleža razvil z namenom ohranitve premoženja v družini ter z namenom zagotovitve zapustnikovim potomcem sredstva za preživljanje. Vendar so se od takrat družbene razmere in način življenja zelo spremenile. Od tega, da se je življenjska doba ljudi podaljšala in ljudje ne puščajo za sabo nepreskrbljenih otrok, ampak že preskrbljene z ustvarjenimi lastnimi družinami ter velikokrat ostarelega in večinoma tudi nepreskrbljenega zakonca ali zunajzakonskega partnerja. Tudi sama družina se ne pojmuje tako široko kot nekdaj, ko je več rodov živelo in ustvarjalo skupaj, ampak se navezuje le na določene najožje osebe. Tako, da ureditev nujnega deleža danes ne ustreza več tem spremenjenim razmeram v družbi. Poseg v zapustnikovo svobodo razpolaganja s svojim premoženjem je prekomeren in ni sorazmeren s koristmi, ki jih daje. Nujni delež je mogoče danes upravičiti le še zaradi namena zagotoviti zapustnikovim najožjim svojcem sredstva za preživljanje, če jih le-ti potrebujejo. Smiselno bi bilo spremeniti zakonsko ureditev nujnega deleža tako, da bi se nujni dediči ujemali s krogom oseb, ki jih je zapustnik že za časa življenja dolžan preživljati po zakonu o zakonski zvezi in družinskih razmerjih. Zakonodajalec ima namreč pri urejanju instituta nujnega deleža različne možnosti ureditve: od določitve kroga nujnih dedičev, določitve kvote nujnega deleža, določitve različnih razlogov za razdedinjenje, postavitve določenih pogojev za nujne dediče, in podobno. Tako, da bi bilo potrebno razmisliti, kako bi bilo treba zakonsko ureditev spremeniti, da bi najbolje ustrezala današnjim razmeram.
Keywords:nujni delež, nujni dediči, zapustnik, svoboda oporočnega razpolaganja, pravica do dedovanja, načelo sorazmernosti
Year of publishing:2010
Publisher:[N. Vrtovec]
Source:Maribor
UDC:34(043.2)
COBISS_ID:4122923 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:LUADVVCY
Views:3150
Downloads:473
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Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:THE COMPULSORY PORTION OF THE ABSOLUTE HEIRS
Abstract:The compulsory portion is an institute, which restricts decedent`s freedom of testamentary disposition. It restricts both freedom of disposition mortis causa (i.e. testamentary disposition) and freedom of disposition inter vivos (i.e. with unpaid dispositions, this means presents in his lifetime). In case that the decendent with testamentary dispositions or with presents exceed the value of available part of the legacy (if he raise or even tire out the compulsory portion of individual obligatory heir) it gets to so-called detraction of the compulsory portion. In this case with explicit request of deprived obligatory heir the testamentary dispositions reduces and if this is not enough even the presents have to be returned. The Right to a compulsory portion has been established as a interim solution between the two extremes: the system of complete freedom of testamentary disposition (which is in force in Anglo-American legal system) on one hand and the system where family has the legal right to inherit the decedent`s legacy. This right can not be taken from them even by testator`s will. The latter had been in force in ancient germanic law, but did not enter into any of today's laws. These two systems correspond to two extreme tendencies, occurring in succession.Testator wants to freely dispose with his property, family members on the other hand has interest to get the testator`s property for themselves. Because of the imperfections of each sistem, the right to a compulsory portion has been developed already in Roman law. This solution has been the most consistent with reality nad most suited to both mentioned tendencies and has been maintained up to this day. An institute of compulsory portion has been accepted in most current modern legal systems. However the regulation of this institut is diferent from country to country, depending on whether placing more emphasis on liberty of testamentary disposition or tendencys of obligatory heirs. In Roman law the institute of compulsory portion has been developed with the intention of keeping property in family and to provide funding for descendants life. However the social circumstances and lifestyle has changed dramatically since then. Human life expectancy has extended and people do not leave behind dependent children but already provided with their own families created. Often is left behind an aged and mostly dependent spouse or out-of-wedlock partner. Even family itself is not considered as wide as in the past, where several generations lived and worked together, but it relates only to certain closest relatives. Therefore the current legal regulation of compulsory portion does not suit this changed ralations anymore. Interference in decedent`s freedom of testamentary disposition is excessive and disproportionate to its benefits. The Compulsory portion can this days be justified only for the purpose of ensuring the testator`s closest relatives funding for life and only if they necessarily need them. It would be appropriate to change the legal regulation of compulsory portion, so that the circle of persons who are entitled to a compulsory portion would be consistent to circle of persons who had to be supported by testator during his lifetime. Legislator has varius options when regulating the institute of compulsory portion: diferent width of the circle of forced heirs, different quota of compulsory portion, different causes for disinheritance, setting certain conditions for forced heirs, etc. It would be necessary to consider which regulation would be the most suitable for today`s conditions.
Keywords:compulsory portion, obligatory heirs, testator, freedom of testamentary disposition, heirship, principle of proportionality


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