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Title:NAČELA DELOVANJA IN VLOGA SVETOVNE TRGOVINSKE ORGANIZACIJE V SVETOVNEM GOSPODARSTVU
Authors:Štern, Maja (Author)
Korez Vide, Romana (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf VS_Stern_Maja_2010.pdf (399,82 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Final seminar paper (mb14)
Organization:EPF - Faculty of Business and Economics
Abstract:Vsaka vojna pušča za seboj katastrofalne posledice in II. svetovna vojna ni bila izjema. Svetovni mir je bil porušen in uničeno je bilo globalno gospodarstvo. Potrebno je bilo ponovno vzpostaviti pravični trgovinski sistem, ki bi okrepil gospodarstva po celem svetu, prav tako pa bi zagotavljal, da mednarodni mir po II. svetovni vojni ne bi bil ogrožen s trgovinskimi vojnami, v katera so gospodarstva zahajala med samo drugo svetovno vojno. Zagotavljanje mednarodnega miru je tako eden temeljnih dejavnikov svetovne trgovinske organizacije in hkrati vzrok za njen nastanek. Sčasoma pa je začel pomen Svetovne trgovinske organizacije naraščati in dobivati pomembnejši obseg. Njena naloga ni bila samo zagotavljati po vojni porušen mir, skrbeti je začela za multilateralna pravila, po katerih narodi trgujejo, omogoča svobodnejše trgovanje in liberalizacijo, skrbi za reševanje sporov, predvsem pa je forum za multilateralna medvladna pogajanja za zniževanje ovir v trgovini. Tako je po samem koncu II. svetovne vojne stekla akcija za ustanovitev ITO (International Trade Organization), vendar slednja ni bila ustanovljena zaradi nasprotujočih stališč o tem, kakšna naj bi bila njena moč. Druga rešitev, ki bi prispevala k večji liberalizaciji mednarodne trgovine, je tako bil sporazum o carinah in trgovini — GATT, ki je pričel veljati leta 1948. Nastanek GATT-a hkrati pomeni pričetek večje liberalizacije mednarodne trgovine. Svetovna trgovinska organizacija je leta 1995 prevzela poslanstvo GATT-a in še danes, 15 let po svoji ustanovitvi, deluje v vsej svoji moči, zaradi vpliva, ki ga ima na gospodarstva vseh držav članic, in držav, ki še niso včlanjene v multilateralni sistem. Globalizacija je povzročila vzpostavitev mednarodnega trga, hkrati pa tudi pomeni nastanek različnih gospodarskih interesov, ki zahtevajo vedno večjo pozornost in nadzor. Svetovna trgovinska organizacija ima sposobnost slediti spremembam v celotnem gospodarstvu ter si prizadeva za mednarodno harmonizacijo narodov. Svetovno trgovinsko organizacijo čakajo v prihodnosti težki izzivi, ki jih bo morala preudarno premostiti, saj je na kocki stabilnost mednarodnega ekonomskega/političnega sistema in vsaka nepremišljena napaka lahko celo vodi do mednarodnega spora. Vsaka napačna kalkulacija lahko pripelje do zelo nevarnih razmer, ki lahko omaja globalno gospodarstvo. Svetovna trgovinska organizacija in druge organizacije imajo v rokah sposobnost povezati vse sile v skupno sodelovanje in tako narediti svet boljši in pravičnejši, kajti le združeni bomo dosegli mednarodni politični in varnostni sistem, ki bo ključno ogrodje, znotraj katerega bo mednarodno gospodarstvo uspešno delovalo.
Keywords:Urugvajski krog pogajanj, Doha  razvojna agenda, Svetovna trgovinska organizacija, Splošni carinski in trgovinski sporazum (GATT), Sporazum o storitvah (GATS), Sporazum o trgovinskih vidikih pravic intelektualne lastnine (TRIPs)
Year of publishing:2010
Publisher:[M. Štern]
Source:Maribor
UDC:339.5
COBISS_ID:10809884 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:THZUVEUK
Views:1768
Downloads:214
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:EPF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:BASIC PRINCIPLES AND THE ROLE OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION IN GLOBAL ECONOMY
Abstract:Every war leaves behind destruction and World War II was no exception. It destroyed world peace and global economy. It was necessary to restore fair trade system that would strengthen the economy worldwide, but would also ensure that international peace after World War II and that it would not be threatened by trade wars, in which economies were involved during the Second World War. Ensuring international peace has been one of the main factors of the World Trade Organization and also the reason for its creation. Eventually the Trade Organization gained greater importance and a wider range. Her task was not only to restore and ensure peace after World War II, but also to take care of multilateral rules under which nations trade. It also allows freer trade and liberalization, it is responsible for the settlement of disputes, but in particular it is an intergovernmental forum for multilateral negotiations to reduce barriers to trade. A campaign for the creation of ITO (International Trade Organization) had been run in the very end of the World War II, but it was not established due to conflicting views on what should be its strength. Another solution, which would contribute to greater liberalization of international trade, has also been agreement on Tariffs and Trade - GATT, which came into force in 1948. The establishment of GATT also means the start of liberalization of international trade. World Trade Organization in 1995 assumed the mission of GATT and even today 15 years after its establishment operates in all its power, because of its influence on the economies of all Member States and countries not yet affiliated to the multilateral system. Globalization has led to the establishment of the international market, but also gave rise to different economic interests, which require increased attention and control. World Trade Organization has the ability to track changes in the overall economy and seek international harmonization of the nations. Difficult challenges await World Trade Organization and they need to be dealt with prudently, since the stability of international economic / political system is at stake and any reckless mistake may even lead to international conflict. Any false calculation can lead to very dangerous situations, which may affect the global economy. World Trade Organization and other organizations have the ability to connect all the forces in the joint participation in their hands and thus to make the world better and fairer. Only by working together we will be able to make the international political and security system which will be an essential framework within which the international economy will successfully work.
Keywords:Uruguay Round negotiations, DOHA-Development Agenda, World trade organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), General Agreemetnt on Trade in Services (GATS), Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIP)


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