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Title:USVAJANJE JEZIKA PRI OTROCIH
Authors:Kurmanšek, Urška (Author)
Jutronić, Dunja (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UNI_Kurmansek_Urska_2010.pdf (350,21 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Abstract:Namen diplomske naloge je predstaviti usvajanje jezika pri otrocih, osnovne pogoje in stopnje le-tega in razložiti Chomskyijev pogled na jezikovno prirojenost in njegovo prepričanje, da učenje jezika ni nekaj, kar bi se otrok naučil, ampak da se mu enostavno zgodi na poti v razvoju v za to primernem socialnem okolju. Temu sledi razlaga Chomskyijeve in Skinnerjeve teorije o usvajanju jezika z namenom, da se poudarijo njuna različna pogleda na ta proces. Diplomska naloga je tako osredotočena na glavni teoriji o usvajanju jezika. Da bi lahko zagovarjala Chomskyijev pogled, ki trdi, da je za uspešno usvajanje jezika potrebna interakcija med prirojenimi danostmi za usvajanje jezika in otrokovim jezikovnim okoljem, zoperstavljam dve teoriji. To sta dve prevladujoči teoriji: Chomskyijev nativizem in Skinnerjev behaviorizem. Zbrani podatki govorijo v prid Chomskyijevi tezi, torej temu, da se ljudje rodimo biološko opremljeni za učenje jezika in razložijo njegovo teorijo o mehanizmu za usvajanje jezika — vrojen mehanizem oziroma proces, ki omogoča učenje jezika. Na drugi strani pa Skinner, ki mu Chomsky odločno nasprotuje, preprosto razlaga, da se otroci učijo jezik skozi posnemanje govorice odraslih. Pri tem pa so pozitivno nagrajeni za pravilne odgovore in kaznovani za nepravilne oziroma neprimerne odgovore. Vendar pa Chomsky poda kar lepo število prepričljivih argumentov, ki trdijo, da gre pri usvajanju in učenju jezika za več kot samo spodbudo in posnemanje govora odraslih. Otroci se jezika naučijo hitro in zlahka kljub temu, da je input, ki so mu izpostavljeni, nezadosten, in kljub kompleksnosti in abstraktnosti njegovega ustroja, za katerega si je težko predstavljati, da ga otrok v veliki meri osvoji že pri starosti treh let, ko kognitivno še ni dovolj razvit za druge naloge. Moje mnenje je, da je to mogoče pojasniti le s prirojenostjo jezikovnih sposobnosti.
Keywords:jezik, vrojen, vrojenost, pridobivanje jezika, mehanizem za usvajanje jezika, jezikovna zmožnost, univerzalna slovnica
Year of publishing:2010
Publisher:[U. Kurmanšek]
Source:Maribor
UDC:811.111(043.2)
URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:DNKWMMP2
COBISS_ID:17765128 Link is opened in a new window
Views:2640
Downloads:248
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Categories:FF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN CHILDREN
Abstract:Aimed at language acquisition in children, its basic requirements and stages, this diploma paper focuses on how language acquisition is looked upon from several language acquisition theories. It sets out to examine Chomskian theories of language innateness and provides us with the answer that language learning is not something a child does, but is something that happens to a child placed in an appropriate environment. Further on, it provides an explanation of Chomskian and Skinner's theories of language acquisition with the purpose of enlightening their standings regarding acquisition of language. In order to defend Chomsky's opinion that successful language acquisition needs the interaction between innate features and child's language environment, a juxtaposition of two dominant theories of language acquisition follows; nativism of Noam Chomsky and behaviourism of B. F. Skinner. The sampled materials defend Chomsky’s thesis that humans are born biologically equipped to learn a language, and explain his theory of Language Acquisition Device (LAD) - an inborn mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language. On the other hand, Skinner easily explains that the child simply »imitates« adults; when the child is positively reinforced it performs a good imitation, and when negatively reinforced - a poor imitation. But there are some very convincing arguments which tell us that children do not just imitate adults’ speech. Chomsky argues that there is more to language learning than imitation and reinforcement. Children acquire language easily although the input they receive is scarce, and despite the complexity and abstract character of language. This is fascinating if we consider the fact that they acquire language to a great extent at the age of three, when their cognitive development does not enable them to deal with other demanding tasks. In my opinion, the innateness of language competence is the answer to the question how this miraculous achievement is possible.
Keywords:language, innate, innateness, language acquisition, language acquisition device, language faculty, Universal Grammar


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