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Title:ZAMUDNA SODBA KOT EVROPSKI IZVRŠILNI NASLOV
Authors:ID Gorenjak, Vesna (Author)
ID Rijavec, Vesna (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
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Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Abstract:Dne 21.01.2005 je začela veljati Uredba (ES) št. 805/2004 Evropskega parlamenta in Sveta z dne 21.04.2004 o uvedbi evropskega naloga za izvršbo nespornih zahtevkov (v nadaljevanju UEIN), ki se je začela uporabljati dne 21.10.2005. Gre za revolucionarno novost v sistemu evropskega civilnega prava oziroma na področju mednarodne izvršbe in je odraz dosežene stopnje integracije ES. Pred sprejetjem UEIN je v ES glede postopka izvršitve tujega izvršilnega naslova (sodne odločbe, sodne poravnave, javne listine) veljalo, da je za učinkovanje tuje sodne odločbe v državi izvršbe potrebno, da država izvršbe dopusti izvršljivost (učinkovanje) tuje sodne odločbe na svojem teritoriju. Pri čezmejni izvršbi torej ločimo t.i. državo izvora (država, v kateri je izvršilni naslov izdan) in t.i. državo izvršbe, v kateri želi upnik opraviti izvršbo na dolžnikovo premoženje na podlagi izvršilnega naslova iz države izvora. Preden se tuj izvršilni naslov v državi izvršbe izvrši, je potrebno izvesti t.i. postopek eksekvature, v katerem se tuj izvršilni naslov razglasi za izvršljivega. V ES je postopek eksekvature urejen v III. Poglavju Uredbe 44/2001 z dne 22.12.2000 o pristojnosti in priznavanju ter izvrševanju sodnih odločb v civilnih in gospodarskih zadevah (Uredba Bruselj I — BU I). Cilj UEIN je pospešitev postopkov čezmejne izvršbe v državah članicah ES (z izjemo Danske) in njihova pocenitev (10. točka preambule k UEIN). Za največjo oviro pri pocenitvi in pospeševanju čezmejnih izvršilnih postopkov znotraj ES je evropski zakonodajalec štel postopek eksekvature (8. točka preambule k UEIN). Da bi omogočil hitro, enostavno in cenejšo mednarodno izvršbo, je zakonodajalec v UEIN postopek eksekvature odpravil (5. člen UEIN), pristojnost za ponovno omejeno preverjanje sodne odločbe prenesel s sodišča v državi izvršbe na sodišče v državi izvora (6. člen UEIN) ter razloge za nepriznanje tuje sodne odločbe vsebinsko skrčil (6. in 21. člen UEIN). Prostemu pretoku blaga, delovne sile, storitev in kapitala se je pridružil še prost pretok sodnih odločb, kar je v literaturi poimenovano kot peta svoboščina. Predpostavke za dovolitev čezmejne izvršbe se torej po UEIN več ne preverjajo v postopku eksekvature, ki se po BU I opravi v državi izvršbe, temveč se postopek potrditve kot EIN opravi v državi izvora. Ko se domač izvršilni naslov potrdi kot EIN, ima upnik možnost neposredne izvršbe na dolžnikovo premoženje v katerikoli državi članici z izjemo Danske, ne da bi pri tem moral poprej v vsaki od njih izvesti postopek eksekvature. UEIN torej temelji na načelu države izvora, saj so za preverjanje predpostavk čezmejne izvršbe pristojna domača sodišča (6. člen UEIN) in ne sodišča v državi izvršbe (skozi postopek eksekvature), kar je korenita sprememba v postopku čezmejne izvršbe v ES. Prednosti uvedbe UEIN se torej kažejo predvsem v ugodnostih za upnika, obseg pravnega varstva dolžnika pa se je v primerjavi z BU I zmanjšal, saj je UEIN razloge za zavrnitev čezmejne izvršbe dodatno omejil.
Keywords:evropski izvršilni naslov, nesporni zahtevki, čezmejna izvršba, država izvora, država izvršbe, eksekvatura, priznanje in izvršitev, načelo države izvora, prost pretok sodnih odločb
Place of publishing:Maribor
Publisher:[V. Gorenjak]
Year of publishing:2010
PID:20.500.12556/DKUM-13884 New window
UDC:34(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:4081707 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:SHXCUVDB
Publication date in DKUM:11.05.2010
Views:536
Downloads:13
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:PF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:DEFAULT JUDGMENT AS EUROPEAN ENFORCEMENT ORDER
Abstract:On 21 January, 2005 entered into force the Regulation (EC) No 805/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 creating a European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims (hereinafter Enforcement Order Regulation) and was applied to use on 21 October, 2005. This is a revolutionary novelty in the European civil law system and on the field of cross-border civil enforcement and is the reflection of mutual trust in the administration of justice between Member States. Before Enforcement Order Regulation in the EC regarding the procedure of enforcement of a foreign enforcement title (judgments, court settlements, public documents) was considered, that for the effect of a foreign judgments in the State of enforcement it is necessary the procedure for recognition and enforcement. In cross-border enforcement we differentiate the so-called the State of origin (where enforcement is issued) and the State of enforcement, in which the creditor wants to carry out enforcement on the debtor’s assets on the basis of enforcement order from the state of origin. Before that it is necessary to carry out process of so-called exequatur. The process of exequatur is regulated in Chapter III of the Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 of 22 December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters (Brussels I Regulation – BR I). The goal of Enforcement Order Regulation is making cross-border civil enforcement more efficient and rapid enforceability of judgments in other Member States, except Denmark (Point 10 of Preamble to Regulation). The European legislator pointed out the procedure of exequatur as the largest obstacle to achieve that goal and for this purpose abolishes the procedure of exequatur in cross-border enforcement (Article 5 of the Enforcement Order Regulation) and moves the jurisdiction for certification from court of enforcement to the court of origin (Article 6 of the Enforcement Order Regulation) and substantially reduced the reasons for non-recognition of foreign judgments (Article 6 and 21 of the Enforcement Order Regulation). To free movement of goods, labor, services and capital joined the free movement of judgments, which is described in the literature as the fifth freedom. The requirements of the Enforcement Order Regulation and comformity of national rules with unified minimal standards must be checked during a process of certification in the state of origin. When the enforcement title is once certified as a European enforcement, the creditor has the option of direct enforcement the debtor's assets in any Member State (except Denmark), without the necessity in each of them to carry out exequatur procedure. The Enforcement Order Regulation therefore is founded on the principle of the state of origin, as only the court of origin is authorised to prove, whether in Member State of origin the minimum procedural standards have been met in order to certify a judgment (Article 6 of the Enforcement Order Regulation) and not the court of enforcement (through the exequatur), which is a radical change in the procedure of cross-border enforcement in the European community. The advantages of the introduction of Enforcement Order Regulation are therefore seen particular in the benefits for the creditor, but on the other hand the extent of the legal protection of the debtor is in comparison with the regulation BR I decreased, as grounds for refusal of cross-border enforcement further limiting.
Keywords:European Enforcement Order, uncontested claims, cross-border enforcement, the State of origin, the State of enforcement, exequatur, recognition and enforcement, principle of the state of origin, free circulation of judgments


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