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Title:Zasteklitev letečega pepela iz sežiga komunalnih odpadkov : magistrsko delo
Authors:Berk, Franc (Author)
Zupanič, Franc (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Samec, Niko (Co-mentor)
Files:.pdf MAG_Berk_Franc_i2010.pdf (8,43 MB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Master's thesis (m2)
Organization:FS - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Abstract:Sistem celovitega ravnanja z odpadki vključuje možnost termične izrabe odpadkov kot virov. Po prednostnem redu ravnanja z odpadki je termična izraba odpadkov uvrščena pred odlaganje, zato se v bodoče zaradi nujnega zmanjšanja količin odloženih odpadkov in posledičnega nedoseganja okoljskih ciljev pričakuje upoštevanje prednostnega reda ravnanja z odpadki. V Sloveniji je zgrajena prva sežigalnica komunalnih odpadkov, ki obratuje v okviru Regijskega centra za ravnanje z odpadki. Glede na sestavo in omejeno možnost snovnega recikliranja preostanka komunalnih odpadkov sta potrebna še vsaj dva obrata za termično obdelavo. Kot stranski produkt termične izrabe komunalnih odpadkov nastajajo večje količine odpadkov, med katerimi je kot nevarni odpadek tudi »leteči pepel«, ki ga brez obdelave in stabilizacije v Sloveniji ni mogoče odlagati ali predelati v uporabne v produkte. V magistrskem delu smo raziskali možnost stabilizacije in deloma inertizacije letečega pepela iz sežiga pretežno komunalnih odpadkov z lokalnim — slovenskim odpadnim pretežno komunalnim steklom do zahteve, da bi ga bilo mogoče uporabiti za predelavo v koristne izdelke, ali za stabilno, okolju čim manj škodljivo in dolgoročno kontrolirano končno dispozicijo odlaganja skladno z zakonodajo. Za dosego tega cilja smo izvedli proces zasteklitve — vitrifikacije (produkt je steklo) in proces naknadne kristalizacije — devitrifikacije (produkt je steklokeramika). Za vodenje in nadzor procesov zasteklitve in kristalizacije ter ugotavljanje fizikalno-kemijskih in mehanskih lastnosti produktov so bile uporabljene metode preskušanja in analiziranja: mikrokemična analiza EDS, diferenčna dinamična kalorimetrija DSC, svetlobno in elektronsko mikroskopiranje, fazna analiza 2D-XRD, tlačni preskus, meritve trdote po Vickersu in kemijski analizni metodi ICP-MS ter ionska kromatografija za ugotavljanje kemijske obstojnosti eksperimentalno pridobljenih produktov. Analize kažejo na zadovoljive rezultate glede kemijske obstojnosti dobljenih produktov stekla in steklokeramike, saj omogočajo predelavo v uporabne produkte in v skrajnem primeru tudi odlaganje na odlagališčih za nenevarne odpadke. Posebej smo bili pozorni na parameter antimon (Sb) v vzorcih stekla S2 in S3 ter steklokeramike SK2 in SK3, ki prekoračuje predpisane mejne vrednosti parametrov izlužka za odlaganje na odlagališčih za inertne odpadke. Vzorca S1 in SK1 ne prekoračujeta omenjenih mejnih vrednosti. Analize kažejo, da vrednosti izluževanja težkih kovin iz vzorčnega letečega pepela zelo prekoračujejo predpisane mejne vrednosti za odlaganje na odlagališča za nenevarne odpadke, kar kaže na pomembnost raziskave, ki je bila opravljena v tem delu. Tudi mehanske lastnoste pridobljenih produktov (trdota po Vickersu 580 HV (5800 MPa) — 718 HV (7180 MPa), tlačna trdnost 55MPa — 148 MPa) so zadovoljive in omogočajo koristno predelavo ali v skrajnem primeru odlaganje na odlagališčih za nenevarne odpadke. Z rezultati, ki smo jih pridobili z raziskavo, potrjujemo možnosti vključevanja tehnologij termične izrabe odpadkov v celostno infrastrukturo, ki omogoča gospodarno, ekonomsko in okoljsko učinkovito izrabo odpadkov kot virov. Sekundarni odpadki, kot je leteči pepel, namreč ne predstavljajo omejitve za vključevanje tovrstnih tehnologij v celostno ravnanje z odpadki v Sloveniji.
Keywords:sežig komunalnih odpadkov, leteči pepel, odpadno steklo, zasteklitev, kristalizacija, steklo, steklokeramika, kemijske lastnosti, fizikalne lastnosti
Year of publishing:2010
Publisher:[F. Berk]
Source:Maribor
UDC:666.2/.6:628.477(043.3)
COBISS_ID:13899542 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:MYMNXKYA
Views:2492
Downloads:222
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:KTFMB - FS
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Vitrification of fly ash from municipal waste incineration
Abstract:The system of comprehensive waste management includes the possibility of thermal utilisation of waste as a resource. By order of priority of waste management, thermal utilisation of waste is placed before disposal, because of the future urgency of reducing the quantities of waste disposed of and the consequent failure to achieve environmental objectives and the expectation to respect the priority order of waste management. In Slovenia, the first municipal waste incinerator was built and operates in the framework of the Regional Center. Given the composition and limited possibility of material recycling of mixed municipal waste, at least two plants for thermal treatment are required. As a byproduct of thermal utilisation of municipal waste larger quantities of waste are generated, including the "fly ash" as hazardous waste, which without treatment and stabilisation in Slovenia cannot be disposed of or recovered for use in products. In the Master's work, we studied the possibility of stabilisation and partial inertisation of fly ash from the incineration of predominantly municipal waste with local/Slovenian waste mainly communal waste glass to the requirement that it could be used for processing into useful products, or stabilised as less environmentally harmful for long-term final controlled disposition to a landfill in accordance with the law. To achieve this goal, we found out the process of glazing - vitrification (the product is glass) and subsequent process of crystallisation-devitrification (the product is glass-ceramic). For management and control of the glazing and crystallisation processes and the identification of the physicochemical and mechanical properties of products the following methods of testing and analysis were used: microchemical analysis EDS, differential scanning calorimetry DSC, light and electron microscoping, phase analysis 2D- XRD, compression test, Vickers hardness measurement and chemical analytical methods ICP-MS and ion chromatography to determine the chemical stability of the experimentally derived products. The analyses show satisfactory results in terms of the chemical stability of the derived glass products and glass-ceramic, allowing processing into useful products and in extreme cases also disposal to landfills for non-hazardous waste. We were particularly attentive to the parameter antimony (Sb) in samples of glass S2 and S3, and glass-ceramic SK2 and SK3, which exceeded the prescribed limited values for eluate parameters for disposal to landfills for inert waste. Sample S1 and SK1 didnot exceed the limited values for eluate parameters for disposal to landfills for inert waste. The analyses show that values of heavy metals elution from the fly ash sample significantly exceed the limit values for disposal to landfills for non-hazardous waste, which shows the importance of the research which was carried out in this work. Also, the mechanical properties of obtained products (Vickers hardness 580 HV (5800 MPa) - 718 HV (7180 MPa), compressive strength 55 to 148 MPa) are satisfactory and make possible useful recovery or in extreme cases disposal to landfills for non-hazardous waste. With the results that we have acquired through the study, we are opening the possibility of including new technologies for thermal utilisation of waste in a comprehensive infrastructure that allows economic and environmentally effective use of waste as a resource. Secondary waste, such as fly ash is no longer limited for inclusion of such technologies into integrated waste management in Slovenia.
Keywords:incineration, municipal solid waste, fly ash, waste glass, vitrification, crystallisation, glass, glass ceramics, chemical properties, mechanical properties


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