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Title:Razvoj energetike v Češki republiki po letu 1989
Authors:Bornekar, Staša (Author)
Lorber, Lučka (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf UNI_Bornekar_Stasa_2009.pdf (2,63 MB)
MD5: 6B9DA3979324A5D284E84C97330B1335
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Abstract:V diplomskem delu je opisan razvoj energetike od začetkov procesov gospodarskega prestrukturiranja ter primerjava podatkov o proizvodnji in porabi energije s Slovenijo in EU 27. Za doseganje višjega življenjskega standarda so na Češkem po letu 1989 potrebovali stabilno gospodarsko rast. Za doseganje rasti se je moralo gospodarstvo prestrukturirati. Zmanjšal se je delež industrijske proizvodnje v sekundarnem sektorju in povišal se je delež storitvenega sektorja. Za uspešno tranzicijo gospodarstva je bilo nujno prestrukturirati tudi energetski sektor, da bi na proizvodno enoto porabili manj energije ter tako produktom zagotovili ugodnejše proizvodne stroške. Pomemben dejavnik v spreminjanju energetike je bila njena privatizacija. Privatizacija energetskih podjetij je omogočila lažje uvajanje tehnoloških novosti v proizvodnjo energije. Posodobljena tehnologija proizvodnje energije ter zmanjšanje uporabe premoga sta pripomogli k večji konkurenčnosti energetskega sektorja. Povišana konkurenčnost energetskih podjetij je omogočila njihovo lažje poslovanje na liberaliziranemu trgu. V energetiki se je spremenila struktura proizvodnje energije. Zmanjšali so delež energije iz premoga, toda kljub zmanjšanju deleža ima premog še danes poglavitni pomen v energetskem gospodarstvu Češke republike. Po letu 2003 so povečali tudi delež energije iz jedrskih elektrarn. Uporaba fosilnih goriv se je z leti od začetka tranzicije zmanjševala, vendar ohranjala dominantni pomen za zagotavljanje oskrbe z energijo. Porast porabe primarnih virov energije je opazen v prometu. Uvedba ukrepov za zmanjšanje količine energije iz premoga je pripomogla tudi k zmanjšanju onesnaževanja okolja. Izkoriščanje naravnih možnosti pridobivanja lokalne energije je v okolju pustilo trajen pečat. V Češki republiki so se sočasno z gospodarskim napredkom začeli intenzivneje zavedati pomena varovanja okolja. Termoelektrarne in industrija z zastarelo tehnologijo so s svojimi izpusti močno onesnažili okolje. Da bi energetika Češke republike ustvarjala višjo dodano vrednost in zaradi mednarodnih zahtev varovala okolje, so začeli po letu 1989 bolj vzpodbujati rabo obnovljivih virov energije. V Češki republiki so pogoji za izkoriščanje obnovljivih virov energije precej omejeni. Hidropotencial vodotokov na Češkem je v največji meri že izkoriščen. Ena izmed dosegljivih poti za doseganje povečevanja deleža energije, pridobljene iz obnovljivih virov, je razvoj uporabe biomase. Po uporabi obnovljivih virov Češka republika v primerjavi s Slovenijo, še vedno pridobiva manjši delež energije iz obnovljivih virov energije.
Keywords:tranzicija, fosilna goriva, jedrska energija, onesnaževanje, obnovljivi viri energije, učinkovita raba energije
Year of publishing:2009
Publisher:[S. Bornekar]
Source:Maribor
UDC:91(043.2)
COBISS_ID:17293320 New window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:4SVQXNXB
Views:1886
Downloads:108
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Categories:FF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Energetics development of the Czech Republic after 1989
Abstract:In the diploma paper is described the development of energetics since the beginning of the economic restructuring processes and a comparison of data on production and consumption of energy between Slovenia and EU 27. Czech Republic needed a stable economic growth after 1989 to be able to reach higher living standard. Economy restructured to attain growth. A part of industrial production decreased in the secondary section and a part of tertiary sector increased. It was urgent to restructure the energy sector for a successful transition economy, so that they would use less energy per production unit and thus ensure lower production costs for the products. An important factor in change of energetics was its privatization. Privatization of energy companies enabled easier introduction of technological novelties to energy production. Updated technology of the energy production and the reduction of coal use helped in bigger competitiveness of the energy sector. Increased competitiveness of energy companies enabled their easier operation at a liberalised market. The structure of energy production changed in energetics. They reduced the share of energy from coal. Despite the share reduction coal still has the principal meaning in energy economy of Czech Republic. After 2003 they increased also the energy share from nuclear power plants. Use of fossil fuels was reducing with years since the beginning of transition, but it kept the dominant meaning for assurance of energy supply. An increase in use of primary energy sources is seen in transport. Introduction of measures for reducing an amount of energy from coal also helped with reduction of environmental contamination. Using natural possibilities for local energy generation has left a big mark on the environment. In Czech Republic they started to be aware of the meaning of the environment protection more intensively together with the economic development. Thermal power plants and industry with the obsolete technology have strongly polluted the environment with their emissions. They started to encourage the use of renewable energy resources after 1989, so that the energetics of Czech Republic would create higher added value and protect the environment due to international requests. Conditions for using renewable energy resources are rather limited in Czech Republic. Hydropotential of watercourses has already been used in the biggest possible way in Czech Republic. One of the reachable ways to attain an increase in energy share from renewable sources is development in the use of biomass. When comparing Czech Republic to Slovenia by the use of renewable sources, we can see that Czech Republic is still gaining smaller energy share from renewable energy sources
Keywords:transition, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, pollution, renewable energy sources, energy efficiency.


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