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Title:PRORAČUNSKI PRIMANJKLJAJ IN FISKALNA POLITIKA
Authors:Leovac, Stipo (Author)
Savin, Davor (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf VS_Leovac_Stipo_2009.pdf (817,96 KB)
 
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Organization:EPF - Faculty of Business and Economics
Abstract:S svojo diplomsko nalogo bom stopil na področje financ, in to na najbolj občutljivo, kot sta fiskalna politika in proračunski primanjkljaj, ki je rezultat »neodgovorne politike«, ki jo vodi država. Razumljivo je, da ima država prejemke kakor tudi odhodke, s katerimi je treba gospodariti na najboljši možni način. Če tega država ne upošteva, je možno, da se znajde v neprijetni situaciji, ko si naloži breme v obliki deficita (primanjkljaja v proračunu). Trenutna dogajanja na finančnem področju in kriza, ki jo preživljajo vse države, so pomembni kazalniki k zmanjšanju ekonomskih dejavnosti. Te vplivajo na gospodarska dogajanja tako, da se zmanjšujejo investicije in potrošnja, raste brezposelnost, kar negativno vpliva na proračun vsake države. Zaradi tega je potrebno, da se država aktivno vključi v gospodarstvo (raznorazne subvencije prebivalcem, socialne pomoči nezaposlenim, treba je ponuditi nižje obrestne mere in druge stimulativne ugodnosti, da bi gospodarstvo spet zaživelo). Svojih dejanj država ne more ohraniti dolgoročno, saj bi bilo to nevzdržno s stališča financ (država ima določena sredstva, ki jih pridobi v enem letu (davki), in del le-teh lahko porabi za gospodarstvo). Če bo vlagala v gospodarstvo nad svojimi možnostmi, se bo morala zadolževati in s tem ustvarjati deficit v proračunu. Kaj je možno narediti, kdo je odgovoren, ukrepi ni posledice …, vse je treba raziskati, da bi se našla najboljša rešitev. V primeru odgovorne in dobro načrtovane politike je možno, da ima država presežke v blagajni v obliki suficita (presežka proračunskih prihodkov nad stroški), h kateremu teži vsako gospodarstvo. Katere mere bo uporabila država pri doseganju teh ciljev in kaj bo uporabila pri financiranju primanjkljaja, bom pojasnil v nadaljevanju. Izjemno je pomembno, da ima država jasno in natančno določeno fiskalno politiko, ki je glavni dejavnik pri zbiranju davkov in opredelitvi, kam se bodo ti davki oz. državni prihodki usmerili. Javne finance so zelo obširno in zahtevno področje, ki se neprestano spreminja, saj vsaka država teži k nenehnim izboljšavam načinov in oblik financiranja javne porabe. S spreminjanjem oblik financiranja in načina ukrepanja se da vplivati na doseganje želene stopnje napredka. Zato je treba naše želje in načine delovanja uskladiti tako, da jih je možno doseči.
Keywords:Fiskalna politika, proračunski primanjkljaj, državni ukrepi pri primanjkljaju, vrste primanjkljajev, načini financiranja primanjkljaja, avtomatični stabilizatorji, seignorage, javni dolg, breme javnega dolga, problemi timinga fiskalne politike, multiplikatorji in njihovi učinki, stopnja zadolženosti, fiskalna politika EU, Pakt Stabilnosti in Rasti (PSR), cilji fiskalne politike, Delovanje države v času krize, makroekonomske napovedi, ukrepi v odziv na finančno in gospodarsko krizo
Year of publishing:2009
Publisher:[S. Leovac]
Source:Maribor
UDC:336.1
COBISS_ID:10102556 Link is opened in a new window
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:LZHTAEFZ
Views:3295
Downloads:939
Metadata:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Categories:EPF
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:BUDGET DEFICIT AND FISKAL POLICY
Abstract:This thesis discusses the aspects of finance, which are today considered as the most sensitive ones; namely, fiscal policy and budget deficit, which is the result of an ‘irresponsible’ government policy. Of course, the government has both incomes and outcomes that have to be managed as well as possible. If the government does not take this into consideration, this might result in budget deficit. The current situation in the field of finance and the economic crisis experienced by a vast majority of countries worldwide are significant indicators of the decrease in economic activity. The crisis results in the decrease in investment and consumption, the growth of unemployment, which in turn has a negative effect on the budgets on every individual country. That is why it is important that the government takes an active role in the economy (e.g. various types of subsidies to individuals, social aid to the unemployed, lower interest rates and other stimulus benefits) to revive the economic activity. However, these activities cannot be sustained in the long turn as this would cause serious problems in the state budget. That is, the government has a limited amount of funds which are collected in one year (i.e. taxes) and only a part can be invested into the economy. If the government spends more funds than it is able to collect, it will have to go into debt and thus create a budget deficit. What can be done? Who is responsible? What measures are needed? What are the consequences? One has to answer all these questions in order to find the best solution. If the government policy is responsible and well-planned, it is possible to have the surplus in the state budget, which is the aim of every economy. The thesis explains the measures a government should take to achieve these goals and to finance budget deficit. It is of crucial importance that the government has a clear and detailed fiscal policy, which is the main factor when collecting taxes and when deciding how this budget income will be spent. Public finance is a complex field which is constantly changing since every country strives for constant improvements of ways and forms of financing public spending. By changing the forms of financing and by changing the measures, the government can affect the achievement of the desired level of progress. Therefore, our wishes and activities need to be synchronized in order to be achieved.
Keywords:Fiscal policy, budget deficit, state measures in the deficit, types of deficits, methods of financing the deficit, automatic stabilizers, seignorage, public deficit, burden of public deficit, problems of timing of fiscal policy, multipliers and their effects, level of debt, fiscal policy in the EU, Pact of Stability and growth (PSR), key goal of fiscal policy, Government operation in times of crisis, macroeconomic forecasting, measures in response to financial and economic crisis


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