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Izpis gradiva

Naslov:AKREDITIVNI DOKUMENTI
Avtorji:Šušterič, Petra (Avtor)
Kranjc, Vesna (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Novo okno
Datoteke:.pdf UNI_Susteric_Petra_2009.pdf (594,98 KB)
 
Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Vrsta gradiva:Diplomsko delo (m5)
Organizacija:PF - Pravna fakulteta
Opis:Začetki enotne ureditve dokumentarnega akreditiva segajo v leto 1933, ko so bila na zasedanju Mednarodne trgovinske zbornice na Dunaju sprejeta prva Enotna pravila in običaji za dokumentarne akreditive, trenutno pa je v veljavi že njihova šesta revizija iz leta 2006 (EPO 600), ki se uporablja od 1. julija 2007. V mednarodnem poslovanju se za plačilo največkrat uporablja dokumentarni akreditiv. Definiramo ga kot nalog kupca oziroma nalogodajalca svoji banki (akreditivni banki), da naj ob predložitvi dokumentov, ki dokazujejo, da je prodajalec, ki je upravičenec iz akreditiva, izpolnil s pogodbo dogovorjene obveznosti, izplača prodajalcu (upravičencu) znesek, ki je naveden v akreditivu. Poslovanje z dokumentarnim akreditivom zahteva dobro poznavanje veljavnih pravil EPO in njihovih temeljnih načel ter tudi samega poteka akreditivnega posla. Temeljna načela, na katerih sloni celotni akreditivni posel so štiri in sicer načelo poslovanja z dokumenti in ne z blagom; načelo avtonomnosti, ki je imenovano tudi načelo ločenosti akreditiva od temeljnega posla; načelo ločenosti notranjih akreditivnih razmerij; ter načelo pregledovanje in bančne strogosti pri pregledovanju dokumentov. Poznavanje teh načel je nujno potrebno pri razumevanju akreditiva in pri problematiki z dokumenti. Za pravilno in nemoteno odvijanje akreditivnega posla je bistvenega pomena točna navedba vrste, števila in vsebine posameznih dokumentov, ki jih mora upravičenec predložiti banki, da mu ta izplača akreditivni znesek. Dokumenti, ki jih je pred izplačilom potrebno predložiti, so navedeni v akreditivu. Stranke same določijo, kateri so ti dokumenti, morajo pa biti natančno določeni. V praksi se največkrat zahtevajo transportne listine, zavarovalne police, certifikati o količini in kakovosti blaga ter trgovske fakture. To so tudi štiri glavne skupine akreditivnih dokumentov, katere pa še spremljajo razna potrdila. Banka, ki izplača akreditivni znesek, mora po predložitvi dokumentov le te skrbno pregledat in honorirat. Pri pregledu dokumentov ne sme preverjati ali je temeljni posel izvršen v skladu z dogovorom med strankama. Njena naloga je samo, da ugotovi formalno pravilnost dokumentov, to je njihovo striktno ujemanje s pogoji iz akreditiva. Nalaga se jim, da dokumente pregledajo z razumno skrbnostjo, da ugotovijo, če so ali niso po svojem izgledu skladni z akreditivnimi določili in pogoji. Skladnost dokumentov z določili in pogoji pa se ugotavlja po mednarodni standardni bančni praksi. Dokumenti morajo biti predloženi pravočasno in morajo biti skladni z roki in pogoji iz akreditiva, če to ni izpolnjeno, obveza banke ugasne. Upravičenec predloži dokumente akreditivni, potrdilni banki ali banki, ki je v akreditivu navedena kot pooblaščena banka. Rok za predložitev dokumentov se običajno navede v akreditivu. Če predložitveni rok v akreditivu ni naveden, znaša ta rok 21 dni od datuma prevoznega dokumenta. Če akreditiv ne zahteva prevoznega dokumenta pa je predložitveni rok enak roku veljavnosti akreditiva. Banka je dolžna zavrniti dokumente, ki niso skladni z roki in pogoji iz dokumentarnega akreditiva. Če dokumente zavrne mora o tem obvestiti predlagatelja z enim samim obvestilom, ki mora vsebovati določila, ki jih navaja čl. 16/c EPO 600. Če banka ne bo opravila vseh dejanj glede zavrnitve ki so določeni v imenovanem členu, ji kasneje, če bo prišlo do spora, ne bo dovoljeno trditi, da dokumenti ne pomenijo ustrezne predložitve. Akreditivne banke oziroma potrdilne banke pa imajo pravico, da od izplačilne banke, ki je predložene dokumente honorirala in se za izplačani znesek reimbursirala, da zahtevajo vračilo reimbursnega zneska, če je akreditivna ali potrdilna banka predložene dokumente izplačilni banki utemeljeno reklamirala. Izplačilna banka, ki ugotovi, da dokumenti v določenih podrobnostih niso popolnoma skladni z določili akreditiva lahko take dokumente kljub vsemu honorira s pridržkom ali proti predložitvi garancije upravičenca, ki krije morebitno
Ključne besede:• Dokumentarni akreditiv • Akreditivni dokumenti • Enotna pravila in običaji za dokumentarne akreditive • Akreditivni posel • Akreditivni znesek • Nalogodajalec • Upravičenec • Akreditivna banka
Leto izida:2009
Založnik:[P. Šušterič]
Izvor:Maribor
UDK:336.777(043.2)
COBISS_ID:3958059 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
NUK URN:URN:SI:UM:DK:YTFZAC44
Število ogledov:2978
Število prenosov:349
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
Področja:PF
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:DOCUMENTS BY LETTERS OF CREDIT
Opis:The origins of uniform rules in the area of documentary credits date back to 1933, when the first Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (UCP) were adopted at a conference of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in Vienna. The latest version is UCP 600, the sixth revision of the rules. It was approved in October 2006 and formally entered into force on 1 July 2007. Documentary credits are the most commonly used means of payment in international trade. By definition a documentary credit, also called letter of credit, is a commitment by a bank (the issuing bank) of whom the applicant (the buyer) is a client, to pay the seller or exporter (the beneficiary) a certain amount for goods or services, provided the beneficiary submits the stipulated documents. Trading with documentary credits requires good knowledge of the UCP and their basic principles as well as the whole process of credit operations. The whole area of credit operations relies on four fundamental principles: the principle of trading with documents rather than goods; the principle of autonomy, also called the principle of the separateness of the documentary credit from the underlying business transaction; the principle of the separateness of the internal credit relations and the principle of examining and insistence upon strict compliance with all documentary requirements. To understand the issue of documentary credit and trading with documents, it is essential to understand these principles. In order for credit operations to proceed smoothly, it is of significant importance that the kind, number and contents of each required document that the beneficiary has to present to the bank are precisely stated. Documents that have to be presented before the payout are stated in the letter of credit. It is the parties who decide which those documents are, but they have to define them precisely. In practice it is mostly time transport documents, insurance policies, certificates of the quantity and quality of goods, and commercial invoices that are required. These are the four main groups of credit documents, but they are normally accompanied by various other confirmations. The presented documents have to be thoroughly examined and honoured by the paying bank. The bank is not allowed to examine whether the basic business has been carried out in accordance with the agreement between the two parties. The bank’s only duty is to ascertain the formal correctness of the documents, that is whether they are in strict accordance with the terms and conditions stipulated in the letter of credit. The bank is expected to examine the documents with judicious care and ascertain whether they are in strict compliance with the terms and conditions stipulated in the letter of credit. The accordance of the documents with the regulations and terms is ascertained according to international standard banking practice. The documents have to be presented punctually and according to the terms stated in the letter of credit – if this is not the case, the obligation of the bank expires. The beneficiary presents the documents to the issuing bank or the bank which is stated in the letter of credit as the authorized bank. The deadline for the presentation of the stipulated documents is normally stated in the letter of credit. If the deadline for the presentation of the documents is not stated in the letter of credit, the allowed time is 21 days from the date of the transport document. If the letter of credit does not require a transport document, the deadline for the presentation is the same as the validity of the letter of credit. The bank is obliged to reject documents which are not in accordance to the terms stated in the documentary credit. If the bank rejects such a document, it has to inform the submitter with a single notice, which has to contain the terms stated in Article 16/c of UCP 600. If the bank does not carry out all the required duties regarding rejection as stated in the named article, it can not claim later (for example in case of a dispute
Ključne besede:• Letter of Credit • Documents by Letters of Credit • Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits • Credit operations • Credit payout • The applicant • The beneficiary


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