|Opis:||English is nowadays considered the most widespread language in the world and the biggest donor language as well. Many languages still borrow from English. However, English has borrowed thousands of words from foreign languages in the course of history as well.
Language borrowing is a widespread sociolinguistics phenomenon in the development of language. The words which are transferred from one language into another are called borrowings or loanwords.
In comparison with Middle and Modern English the Old English had been very flexible in coining new words from native word stock and at that time there was no need for the introduction of foreign words. However, later, the speakers found it easier to adopt already existing words than to coin new ones. One of the arguments in favour of borrowings was the enrichment of the language and the ability to express the most sophisticated ideas and concepts as classical languages were able to do. In comparison with some other European countries there has been relatively little opposition to borrowings in English.
Latin and French have been the biggest suppliers of words into English in the course of history. Words from Latin which were introduced into Old and Middle English were chiefly associated with the spheres warfare, commerce, agriculture, food and those aspects of human life, in which the Romans were regarded as superior culture. Many Latin words associated to church and religious services were introduced into English via Celtic due to the acceptance of Christianity among the English. Even now, many scholars turn to Latin when they need a word for a new concept or invention.
The influx of French words into English began with the Norman Conquest in 1066, when French replaced English in public spheres and became an official language of government, administration, courts and among the upper classes of Norman nobility. Until the Modern English period, English acquired a lot of expressions associated with government, administration, military affairs, law, art, science as well as those related to fashion, food and entertainment. Namely, French was considered the main language of culture, prestige and civilisation in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the Modern period of English from 1500 on the influx of foreign words into English has continued, but English tends to borrow from less and less known languages, even exotic languages. Borrowings that have been introduced into English up to now cover most aspects of human life, including politics, government, military, society, culture, art and religion. Mostly words related to exotic ideas, concepts and objects are borrowed. In other words, the nouns that do not originally come from Great Britain are borrowed more frequently.
As far as the word class of borrowings is concerned the nouns and lexical words are borrowed more frequently than grammatical words. This can be explained by the chief causes of borrowing, namely the necessity of borrowings for designation of new things and the enrichment of vocabulary of the borrowing language.
More than 50 percents of all English words are of Latin and French origin. The remainder includes native English words or words of Anglo-Saxon origin and words from other languages (Japanese, Chinese, Italian, Spanish, Scandinavian, German, Dutch, etc.). However, many of borrowings are not used in everyday speech, but rather restricted to certain technical language. Therefore the basic vocabulary consists predominantly of native English words.