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1.
Comparison of ethanol and acetaldehyde toxicity in rat astrocytes in primary culture
Lucija Šarc, Metoda Lipnik-Štangelj, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: This study compared the effects of toxicity of ethanol and its first metabolite acetaldehyde in rat astrocytes through cell viability and cell proliferation. The cells were treated with different concentrations of ethanol in the presence or absence of a catalase inhibitor 2-amino-1,2,4 triazole (AMT) or with different concentrations of acetaldehyde. Cell viability was assessed using the trypan blue test. Cell proliferation was assessed after 24 hours and after seven days of exposure to either ethanol or acetaldehyde. We showed that both ethanol and acetaldehyde decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In proliferation studies, after seven days of exposure to either ethanol or acetaldehyde, we observed a significant dose-dependent decrease in cell number. The protein content study showed biphasic dose-response curves, after 24 hours and seven days of exposure to either ethanol or acetaldehyde. Co-incubation in the presence of AMT significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of ethanol on cell proliferation. We concluded that long-term exposure of astrocytes to ethanol is more toxic than acute exposure. Acetaldehyde is a much more potent toxin than ethanol, and at least a part of ethanol toxicity is due to ethanol's first metabolite acetaldehyde.
Keywords: 2-amino-1-2-4 triazole, AMT, cell proliferation, cell viability, trypan blue
Published: 30.03.2017; Views: 372; Downloads: 178
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2.
Role of livestock husbandry on rural transformation in North India
Asif Iqubal, 2010, review article

Abstract: Livestock husbandry is an important source of economic activity in the agricultural sector contributing a major portion of GDP to India and improving the socio-economic conditions for people in general and rural people in particular. Livestock husbandry has been practiced, usually in rural areas, since ancient times. The increasing urbanization of the growing popula- tion and the changing food habits of people has enhanced the demand of livestock products worldwide. Thus, the world’s livestock sector is growing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. India is one developing country that shares the largest number of livestock and has a top position in milk production in the world. The livestock in India with 185 million cattle and 98 million buffaloes possesses 20% of the world’s bovine and 14% of the world's cattle population. A micro level geographical area known as Aligarh district in north India has been selected for study. The data regarding various aspects of livestock husbandry at the grass roots level is not available in recorded form. 12 villages from the district have been selected for field survey to generate data regarding the socio economic transformation of rural people in the study region. The study revealed that livestock husbandry shows upward dynamism in terms of numbers. A positive growth of 7.5% livestock as a whole has been observed through the data analysis of two points of time i.e. 1993 and 2003. 83% of the workforce of households surveyed in the rural areas is found to be involved directly or indirectly in livestock husbandry, and it is practiced by landless, marginal and small farmers particularly.
Keywords: livestock, women's participation, employment, economic viability
Published: 29.03.2018; Views: 176; Downloads: 34
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3.
Livestock revolution and its impacts on the sustainability of marginal and small farmers in India
Nizamuddin Khan, Asif Iqubal, 2010, review article

Abstract: Livestock husbandry is an important segment of Indian agriculture. Its share of contribution to agricultural gross products has increased since the implementation of the globalization of agricultural trade. Livestock revolution has occurred not only in India, but in all tropical deve- loping countries, owing to recently increasing demand for animal-derived products in national and international markets. We selected Aligarh, a micro geographical unit from the Upper Ganga plain of Uttar Pradesh for this study. 600 households from 12 villages in the area were surveyed for collection of data. The study revealed that the region witnessed growth in livestock husbandry with selected species during 1993-1994 to 2003-2004. Buffalo and goats showed a positive change due to enhancement in the demand of milk and meat on account of increasing urban consumers, liberalization of agri-business and the changing of food habits over the decades. Cattle numbers have contracted owing to the mechanization of agriculture and the prohibition of cow slaughter in the country. Two thirds of livestock keepers, workers and beneficiaries are poor farmers with less than 3 hectares of land holding. The majority of them follow the livestock-cropping integrated farming system, which is highly beneficial rather than rearing livestock exclusively. Livestock husbandry is an economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable farming system in the study area of the Aligarh district.
Keywords: sustainable, economic viability, livestock revolution
Published: 29.03.2018; Views: 447; Downloads: 45
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