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1.
Oskrba poškodovanca s poškodbo glave in vratne hrbtenice
Gregor Janžič, 2012, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V diplomski nalogi smo želeli ugotoviti ali je poznavanje oskrbe poškodovanca s poškodbo glave in vratne hrbtenice med slovenskimi reševalnimi službami skladno z mednarodnimi smernicami. Prav tako smo želeli predstavili dela in naloge reševalcev pri oskrbi poškodovancev s poškodbami glave in vratne hrbtenice in pa tudi predstaviti različne metode ugotavljanja zavesti in pripomočkov, ki se trenutno najpogosteje uporabljajo na terenu. Diplomska naloga je sestavljena iz teoretičnega in empiričnega dela. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene poškodbe glave in vratne hrbtenice, metode ocenjevanja zavesti in metode oskrbe dihalne poti. V drugem delu smo uporabili anketni vprašalnik, sestavljen v namen konkretne raziskave, s katerim smo anketirali 62 zaposlenih (tehnikov zdravstvene nege in diplomiranih zdravstvenikov ter diplomiranih medicinskih sester) v enotah nujne medicinske pomoči iz Maribora, Celja, Lenarta in Gornje Radgone. Z raziskavo smo želeli ugotoviti kako pogosto se anketiranci srečujejo s poškodbami glave in vratne hrbtenice, kakšne vrste imobilizacije uporabljajo na terenu, kako ocenjujejo svoje znanje s področja poškodb glave in vratne hrbtenice, na kak način se izobražujejo na tem področju in pa poznavanje metod ugotavljanja zavesti. Z raziskavo smo dobili odgovor na zastavljeno raziskovalno vprašanje, in sicer je poznavanje oskrbe poškodovanca s poškodbo glave in vratne hrbtenice med slovenskimi reševalnimi službami skladno z mednarodnimi smernicami, hkrati pa smo ugotovili na katerih področjih bi anketiranci lahko dopolnili svoje znanje o poškodbah glave in vratne hrbtenice.
Keywords: nujna medicinska pomoč, poškodbe glave, poškodbe vratne hrbtenice, metode ocenjevanja zavesti, Glasgow coma scale, AVPU, Revised trauma score (RTS).
Published: 09.08.2012; Views: 3019; Downloads: 541
.pdf Full text (3,02 MB)

2.
Primerjava napovedne vrednosti rezultatov lestvic RISC (Revised Injury Severity Classification) in TRISS (Trauma and Injury Severity Score) na slovenskem vzorcu hudo poškodovanih
Drago Brilej, 2014, dissertation

Abstract: IZHODIŠČA: Temeljni pogoj za zagotavljanje kakovosti zdravljenja je spremljanje rezultatov. Za objektivno oceno potrebujemo ustrezne podatke. Glavni namen registrov poškodovanih je pridobivanje podatkov o celotni verigi oskrbe od mesta nesreče do zaključka hospitalizacije. Zaradi razpršenosti poškodovancev po številnih bolnišnicah v Sloveniji je v Projektu razvoja mreže travmatološke dejavnosti predvidena uvedba nacionalnega registra poškodovancev. Za primerjavo rezultatov zdravljenja poškodovancev z mednarodnimi standardi se največ uporablja metodologija TRISS. Razvili so jo z multivariantno analizo skupine poškodovancev (MTOS), ki se pomembno razlikuje od slovenskega vzorca hudo poškodovanih. Zaradi te razlike se je porodil dvom o uporabnosti metodologije TRISS. Z vključitvijo slovenskih poškodovancev v nemški TR DGU pa smo prevzeli metodo RISC za primerjavo rezultatov zdravljenja z drugimi ustanovami. Nova metoda še ni bila ovrednotena na skupini, ki se razlikuje od poškodbenega vzorca v TR DGU. Namen naloge je preveriti uporabnost metode RISC na slovenskem vzorcu hudo poškodovanih in jo primerjati z metodo TRISS. METODE: Od vstopa v TR DGU v letu 2006 smo v SB Celje prospektivno zajeli podatke o kohortni skupini 376 hudo poškodovanih in jih vnesli v TR DGU. Primerjali smo dejavnike tveganja med poškodovanci v SB Celje in TR DGU ter izračunali vrednosti TRISS in RISC za vsakega poškodovanca. S statistiko M smo primerjali porazdelitev izračunanih verjetnosti preživetja med SB Celje, MTOS in TR DGU. Za ugotavljanje ustreznosti točkovnih lestvic (TRISS, RISC in RISC II) smo uporabili statistične metode diskriminacije (aROC), natančnosti (razlika v preživetju) in kalibracije (statistika H-L). REZULTATI: Povprečna starost poškodovancev je bila 47 let, 83 % je bilo moških, 95 % topih poškodb. Povprečna ISS vrednost je bila 26,4 (90 % ≥ 16). V bolnišnici je umrlo 17,5 % poškodovancev. Standardizirana umrljivost je pokazala za 1,9 % manjšo umrljivost, kot je predvidena s statističnimi modeli. Ugotovili smo pomembno odstopanje v dejavnikih tveganja med poškodovanci v SB Celje in TR DGU, kar lahko razložimo z drugačnimi vključitvenimi merili. Potrdili smo, da je slovenski vzorec hudo poškodovanih drugačen, in da je treba preveriti učinkovitost metode RISC. Primerjali smo preživetje med skupinami in ugotovili slabo ujemanje skupine poškodovancev v SB Celje z MTOS (M = 0,50) ter dobro ujemanje s TR DGU (M = 0,88). V dveh časovnih obdobjih (2006–07 in 2011–12) se porazdelitev v SB Celje ni pomembno spremenila (M = 0,90). Potrdili smo pomembno razliko med skupino MTOS in SB Celje, ki vpliva na uporabnost metode TRISS. Kljub razlikam v dejavnikih tveganja pa smo potrdili dobro ujemanje rezultatov med skupinama SB Celje in TR DGU, kar upravičuje uporabo metode RISC na slovenskem vzorcu hudo poškodovanih. Najboljšo diskriminacijo sta pokazali lestvici RISC in RISCII (aROC 0,91 in 0,90). Najbolj natančna je bila lestvica RISC (razlika v umrljivosti 1,9 %), ki je prav tako imela najboljšo in skoraj popolno kalibracijo (H-L 0,53). ZAKLJUČKI: Metoda RISC je pokazala boljšo diskriminacijo in kalibracijo, bila je bolj natančna kot metodologija TRISS za slovenski vzorec hudo poškodovanih. Primerjava podatkov v SB Celje v letih 2006-7 z leti 2011-2 je pokazala nekaj razlik. Predvsem je opazno izboljšanje na področju kazalnikov kakovosti oskrbe (krajši predbolnišnični čas, krajši čas na urgentnem oddelku). Toda te razlike niso vplivale na uporabnost metode RISC. Prestala je test sprememb v strukturi in obravnavi poškodovancev skozi čas. Metoda TRISS kljub novim koeficientom ni primerna za uporabo na slovenskem vzorcu hudo poškodovanih. Posodobljena RISC II je dobra metoda, a nič boljša od že uveljavljene RISC.
Keywords: hudo poškodovani, vrednotenje, Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), Revised Injury Severity Classification (RISC), register
Published: 26.01.2015; Views: 1148; Downloads: 207
.pdf Full text (6,40 MB)

3.
Penetrantna poškodba torakalne aorte zaradi serijskega zloma reber
Vojko Flis, Jože Antonič, Zvonko Borovšak, Ivana Glumbić, Nina Kobilica, 2011, professional article

Abstract: Namen: Poškodbe prsnega koša se pojavljajo pri 10-15 % vseh poškodb. Tope poškodbe prsnega koša, ki jih spremljajo serijski zlomi reber, so obremenjene z visoko obolevnostjo in umrljivostjo. Nestabilne zlome prsnega koša lahko zdravimo konservativno z ustrezno analgezijo, asistirano ventilacijo in čiščenjem bronhialnih izločkov. Toda takšno zdravljenje ne preprečuje poškodb, ki se lahko pojavijo zaradi zlomljenih reber, ki štrlijo v prsno votlino. Štrleče konice reber na levi strani prsnega koša lahko poškodujejo torakalno aorto. Take poškodbe so značilne za paravertebralne serijske zlome reber, za katere zaenkrat ne obstaja varen in splošno sprejet način osteosinteze. Poročilo o primeru: Prikazan je primer 68-letnega moškega z obojestranskim serijskim zlomom reber in nestabilnim prsnim košem. Poškodba je bila zdravljena z asistirano ventilacijo. Nekaj dni po poškodbi so zlomljena rebra v višini šestega in sedmega rebra levo predrla descendentno aorto in moški je umrl med oživljanjem in prevozom v operacijsko dvorano zaradi hemoragičnega šoka. Zaključek: Paravetebralni serijski zlomi reber na levi strani prsnega koša lahko povzročijo penetrantno poškodbo torakalne aorte. Za take poškodbe zaenkrat ne obstaja varen in splošno sprejet način osteosinteze.
Keywords: blunt thoracic trauma, rib fractures, penetrant injury to aorta
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 1216; Downloads: 45
URL Link to full text

4.
PRVA POMOČ PRI CRUSH IN BLAST POŠKODBAH
Denis Vajda, 2015, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Teoretična izhodišča: V diplomskem delu smo obravnavali tematiko crush in blast poškodb. Opisali smo nastanek tovrstnih poškodb ter postopek obravnave in nudenje prve pomoči. Metodologija: V teoretičnem delu diplomskega dela smo uporabili deskriptivno metodo raziskovanja. S pomočjo domače in tuje znanstvene in strokovne literature smo preučili obravnavan problem in predstavili znanstvena spoznanja. V empiričnem delu diplomskega dela smo uporabili kvantitativno metodo raziskovanja. Podatke smo zbirali s pomočjo anketnega vprašalnika, ki smo ga razdelili v treh enotah nujne medicinske pomoči (NMP) na področju severovzhodne Slovenije. Ugotovitve smo obdelali s pomočjo računalniškega programa Microsoft Office Excel in SPSS statistics ter jih tabelarično prikazali. Rezultati: Ugotovili smo, da se ekipa NMP pogosteje srečuje s crush poškodbami kot z blast poškodbami. Kljub temu si želijo dodatnih izobraževanj in praktičnih vaj tako na tematiko crush poškodb, kot na tematiko blast poškodb. Ugotovili smo tudi, da je sodelovanje med gasilci, civilno zaščito, vojsko in ekipo NMP dobro. Pri obravnavi poškodovanih ekipa NMP upošteva International trauma life support (ITLS) standarde in navodila. Diskusija in zaključki: Kljub temu, da so crush in blast poškodbe tretirane kot poškodbe v vojnem svetu, so v današnjem času vse pogosteje pojavljajo tudi v civilnem svetu. Prav iz tega razloga je nujno potrebno, da je ekipa NMP ustrezno usposobljena za postopanje ob tovrstnih poškodbah in da je sodelovanje omenjenih služb dobro. Še le na tak način je mogoče poškodovanim kar najbolje pomagati in jih oskrbeti.
Keywords: nujna medicinska pomoč, crush poškodbe, blast poškodbe, prva pomoč, interational trauma life support, advanced trauma life support
Published: 07.12.2015; Views: 900; Downloads: 170
.pdf Full text (1,80 MB)

5.
Post-9/11 America: Poetic and Cultural Responses
Kristina Kočan Šalamon, 2016, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: The doctoral dissertation with the title “Post-9/11 America: Poetic and Cultural Responses” examines the immediate responses that emerged in American media and poetry after the terrorist attacks on 11 September, 2001 in New York City and Washington, D.C. The research proceeds from the analysis of responses to 9/11 in several American printed media, to the reading of poetic works by contemporary American poets. Using the resources of the editorials in four major daily American newspapers (USA Today, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Washington Times) and two leading weekly American magazines (The New Yorker and The Weekly Standard), the research employs the theoretical approach of content analysis to examine the rhetoric used. This method enables textual data analysis in selected editorials associated with the language of 9/11 to confirm the first variable of the thesis; i.e. that the media reproduced the manner of the rhetoric of the then current government administration. Seeking to explain the rhetoric of the politicians and the media after 9/11, the analysis explores several parameters. This kind of rhetoric addressed the issues connected to 9/11, and employed a great deal of patriotism-related words as well as a language that could help instigate fear and paranoia in Americans and their culture. After the first hypothesis of the thesis has been established, the study turns towards the primary argument of the thesis. The main crux of the study is to show that the majority of the poets deviated from the prevalent rhetoric of the time, and did not resort to the language of fear and intense patriotism. This in-depth study of contemporary American poetry that came into existence as a response to the events of 9/11 focuses on poems published in several anthologies (Poetry after 9/11: An Anthology of New York Poets; September 11, 2001 American Writers Respond; An Eye for an Eye Makes the Whole World Blind; September 11: West Coast Writers Approach Ground Zero; 110 Stories), prominent American journals (such as The New Yorker and Michigan Quarterly Review), and poetry collections. Focusing on portraying the manifold poetic responses to 9/11, this study leans on thematic criticism as a comparative approach for creating a collectivity of poems that differ in metrics, style, tropes and figures of speech. Thematic criticism provides a foundation for organizing the poems into thematic clusters, not by determining unique thematic features of a specific poem, but by establishing attributes that unite several poems into a thematic cluster. The thesis divides the 9/11 poems into eight thematic clusters, which are then analyzed in detail. Additionally, the study uses another method to analyze individual poetic responses to 9/11, which is the formalist theoretical approach, New Criticism. This interpretive method of close reading enables an interpretation of a poem by analyzing its formal elements based on internal evidence. With the combination of the interpretive and comparative approach, the thesis has confirmed the main postulate and has established that most post-9/11 American poetry eschewed the prevalent patriotic rhetoric of the then current U.S. media. The study has shown that post-9/11 poetry is a marginal genre in comparison to the 9/11 novel when it comes to the critical examination of the post-9/11 literary responses. Hence, this study is novel in providing a substantial scholarly examination of post-9/11 poetry written by American poets. Chapter 2 investigates fear, patriotism and language issues in politics and the media after 9/11.Chapter 3 establishes the prevailing rhetoric in the immediate post 9/11 response of U.S. media with the help of the theoretical framework of content analysis. The pre-existing scholarly work on literary responses to 9/11 and the problems with representation of 9/11 in American culture occupy Chapter 4, while Chapter 5 sets out the selected methodology (Thematic Criticism and New Criticism) for studying post-9/11 American poetry. Chapter 6 deals extensively with thematic representations in post-9/11 American poetry.
Keywords: events of 9/11, contemporary American poetry, responses, media, politics, culture, trauma, crisis, content analysis, New Criticism, close reading, thematic criticism
Published: 05.10.2016; Views: 978; Downloads: 66
.pdf Full text (1,17 MB)

6.
Disorientation and disillusionment in Post-9/11 poetry
Kristina Kočan, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper examines the immediate responses that emerged in American poetry after the terrorist attacks on 11 September, 2001. The aim of the paper is not to summarize the tragic events of 9/11, but to show how poets reacted to the terrorist attacks. In response to 9/11, a great deal of poetry emerged that expresses the poetic and completely personal, intimate side of the crisis, and many printed publications appeared in which poets addressed 9/11. Although one can find a range of features in American poetry after the attacks, there are notable similarities among the poetry being produced. The post-9/11 poetry can be divided into thematic clusters. This paper is, however, limited to responses that deal only with feelings of disorientation, loss and despair after 9/11. Furthermore, the paper presents poetic reactions that involve a sense of disillusionment and the idea that everything changed after the attacks. Each thematic cluster offers examples of 9/11 poetry that are interpreted with the help of close reading.
Keywords: American literature, contemporary American poetry, events of 9/1, responses, close reading, trauma, thematic criticism
Published: 16.05.2017; Views: 274; Downloads: 47
.pdf Full text (102,73 KB)
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7.
The trauma and coping in homicide and sexual offences and juvenile crime criminal investigators
Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The study aims to contribute to research on trauma among police officers. The paper presents selected results of a larger study about trauma and coping among two specific police groups: criminal investigators from the Homicide and Sexual Offences (HSO) section as well as the Juvenile Crime (JC) section. Findings for each group are presented and differences analysed. Design/Methods/Approach: All 56 criminal investigators from HSO and JC sections within the Republic of Slovenia were asked to participate. The response rate was high: 92.59% (n = 25) for the HSO and 82.14% (n = 23) for the JC groups. The participants signed an informed consent and completed the questionnaires in a group setting in work hours. They were later given information about the individual results if they wished. Findings: The results for both groups show a low level of posttraumatic symptomatology that is linked to specific, mostly avoidance coping mechanisms. Specific work situations related to higher posttraumatic symptoms were identified for each participant group. Research Limitations / Implications: While the response rate was high, the small size of the two groups limits possibilities of statistical analysis, especially since the data are mainly not normally distributed. Practical Implications: A cross-sectional assessment of potential posttraumatic symptomatology can suggest preventive and possibly curative programmes for criminal investigators able to improve and contribute to more effective police work. Originality/Value: This is the first study in Slovenia to address the narrow field of trauma and coping among specific police groups.
Keywords: police work, psychology, trauma, coping, criminal investigators
Published: 15.04.2020; Views: 41; Downloads: 6
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