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1.
Charpy toughness and microstructure of vibrated weld metal
Bogdan Pučko, Vladimir Gliha, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Vibration during welding can be used to obtain certain changes in mechanical properties of weld metal. Research work on the influence of vibration on the secondary microstructure of welds and hence on the Charpy toughness was performed. Vibration during welding exhibits positive effects on the microstructure constituent formation. Multipass welding was simulated with reheating of the original single pass weld in order to obtain similar microstructure to multipass welds. Microstructures were examined with an optical microscope. Additionally, fractographic examination of the rupture of Charpy specimens was performed. Changes in the microstructure according to vibration were observed which affect toughness of the weld metal. Vibration during welding was rated more effective in the case of reheating the weld metal, which is the case in multipass welding.
Ključne besede: welding, welded joints, mechanical properties of metals, ferrite, vibration, microstructure, toughness, notched bar testing, weld metal
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 1429; Prenosov: 66
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

2.
Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming
Leo Gusel, Miran Brezočnik, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In the paper, an approach completely different from the conventional methods for determination of accurate models for the change of properties of cold formed material, is presented. This approach is genetic programming (GP) method which is based on imitation of natural evolution of living organisms. The main characteristic of GP is its non-deterministic way of computing. No assumptions about the form and size of expressions were made in advance, but they were left to the self organization and intelligence of evolutionary process. First, copper alloy rods were cold drawn under different conditions and then impact toughness of cold drawn specimens was determined by Charpy tests. The values of independent variables (effective strain, coefficient of friction) influence the value of the dependent variable, impact toughness. On the basis of training data, different prediction models for impact toughness were developed by GP. Only the best models, gained by genetic programming were presented in the paper. Accuracy of the best models was proved with the testing data set. The comparison between deviation of genetic model results and regression model results concerning the experimental results has showed that genetic models are more precise and more varied then regression models.
Ključne besede: metal forming, genetic programming, evolutionary computing, impact toughness, copper alloy, modelling
Objavljeno: 30.05.2012; Ogledov: 1349; Prenosov: 67
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3.
Determination of lower bound fracture toughness of a high strength low alloy steel welded joint
Nenad Gubeljak, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The use of high-strength low-alloy steels for high performance structures (e.g. pressure vessels and pipelines) requires high strength consumables to produce an overmatched welded joint. This globally overmatched multipass welded joint contains two significantly different microstructures, as welded and reheated. In this paper, the influence of weld metal microstructure on fracture behaviour is estimated in comparison with the fracture behaviour of composite microstructures (as welded and reheated). The lower bound of fracture toughness for different microstructures was evaluated by using the modified Weibull distortion. The results, obtained using specimens with crack front through the thickness, indicated low fracture toughness, caused by strength mismatching interaction along thevcrck front. In the case of through thickness specimens, at least one local brittle microstructure is incorporatedin the process zone at the vicinity of the crck tip. Hence, unstable fracture occurred with small or without stable crack propagation. Despite the fact that the differences between the impact toughness of a weld metal and that of base metal are insignificant, the future toughness of a weld metal can be significantly lower.
Ključne besede: welded joints, fracture mechanics, Crack tip opening displacement, high strength seeel weld, mismatch effects, fracture toughness, resistance curves
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1202; Prenosov: 63
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4.
Effect of vibration on weld metal hardness and toughness
Bogdan Pučko, Vladimir Gliha, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Vibration of welded parts is usually applied to achieve effects similar to thermal stress relief. With vibration, it is not only residual stresses that are affected. Using two different welding processes, the influence of vibration on hardness and toughness of the weld was measured. For each weldingprocess, two series of Charpy specimens were made over the temperature range from -60 to +20°C. The only difference between the two series was in performing welding with or without vibration. Slight differences in weld metalhardness were observed. Toughness measurements show an increase in impacttoughness and a significant increase in fracture toughness in samples which were vibrated during welding.
Ključne besede: welding, welded joints, residual stresses, vibrational stress relief, hardness, toughness, steel
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1365; Prenosov: 57
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

5.
Crack tip shielding or anti-shielding due to smooth and discontinuous material inhomogeneities
N.K. Simha, Franz Dieter Fischer, Otmar Kolednik, Jožef Predan, G.X. Shan, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper describes a theoretical model and related computational methods forexamining the influence of inhomogeneous material properties on the crack driving force in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. Following the configurational forces approach, the crack tip shielding or anti-shielding dueto smooth (e.g. graded layer) and discontinuous (e.g. bimaterial interface)distributions in material properties are derived. Computational post-processing methods are described to evaluate these inhomogeneity effects.The utility of the theoretical model and computational methods is demonstrated by examining a bimaterial interface perpendicular to a crack in elastic and elastic-plastic compact tension specimens.
Ključne besede: fracture mechanics, fracture toughness, composite materials, layered material, inhomogeneity, cracks, finite element method, elastic bimaterials
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1154; Prenosov: 52
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

6.
On fracture behaviour of inhomogeneous materials - a case study for elastically inhomogeneous bimaterials
Otmar Kolednik, Jožef Predan, G.X. Shan, N.K. Simha, Franz Dieter Fischer, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper presents a case study, examining the influence of a sharp bimaterial interface on the effective crack driving force in a fracture mechanics specimen. The inhomogeneity of the elastic modulus in linear elasticand non-hardening and hardening elastic-plastic bimaterials is considered. The interface is perpendicular to the crack plane. The material properties and the distance between the crack tip and the interface are systematically varied. The effect of the material inhomogeneity is captured in form of a quantity called "material inhomogeneity term",▫$C_inh$▫. This term can be evaluated either by a simple post-processing procedure, following a conventional finite element stress analysis, or by computing the J-integral along a contour around the interface, ▫$J_int$▫. The effective crack driving force,▫$J_tip$▫, can be determined as the sum of ▫$C_inh$▫ and the nominally applied far-field crack driving force, ▫$J_far$▫. The results show that ▫$C_inh$▫ can be accurately determined by both methods even in cases where ▫$J_tip$▫-values are inaccurate. When a crack approaches a stiff/compliant interface,▫$C_inh$▫ is positive and ▫$J_tip$▫ becomes larger than ▫$J-far$▫. A compliant/stiff transition leads to a negative ▫$C_inh$▫, and ▫J_tip$▫ becomes smaller than ▫$J_far$▫. The material inhomogeneity term, ▫$C_inh$▫, can have the same order of magnitude as ▫$J_far$▫. Based on the numerical results, the dependencies of ▫$C_inh$▫ on the material parameters and the geometry are derived. Simple expressions are obtained to estimate ▫$C_inh$▫.
Ključne besede: mechanics of structures, fracture toughness, inhomogeneous materials, J-integral, crack driving force, interface, material force
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 813; Prenosov: 9
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

7.
In-service damage of railway steel axles
O. Jasnìî, Tomaž Vuherer, Ju. I. Pindus, Andriy Sorochak, Ivan Samardžić, 2011, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: The influence of temperature and specimens undercut place on impact toughness of railway axle material in service is investigated. The obtained results show inversely proportional dependence of impact toughness on undercut radius of specimens. The decrease of test temperature from +20 to –40 ºC decreases significantly the impact toughness and portion of ductile fracture.
Ključne besede: impact toughness, in-serice damage, railway axle, undercut
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 598; Prenosov: 44
.pdf Celotno besedilo (554,44 KB)
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8.
Assessment of the load-bearing capacity of a primary pipeline
Nenad Gubeljak, Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, Borivoj Šuštaršič, Jožef Predan, Maks Oblak, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: High-alloyed Cr-Ni-based two-phase stainless steel (SS) cast alloys are commonly used in nuclear power plants. The mechanical equipment in these facilities can contribute to a reduction in its resistance to stable crack growth as a result of extended operating times and high temperatures. The toughness of these materials strongly depends on their delta (▫$/delta$▫) ferrite content, which spinodally decomposes into two phases with different ratios of Cr and Ni at a relatively low (slightly above 300 °C) temperature. This temperature is similar to the operating temperature of the vital parts, for example, the coolant system. The formation of two phases with the same crystalstructure but different lattice parameters causes internal elastic stresses that result in a hardness increase and an impact-toughness decrease. The result is an increased risk of crack formation in the stress-concentration zones such as the critical regions of different welded joints (e.g. "L, T, K and X" shapes). The values of the critical stress intensity factor change according to its position along the crack contour. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the influence of the materials' changes on the crack extension and the decrease of the primary pipeline's bearing capacity by taking account of the increased temperature and time of operation for the given loading conditions. The SINTAP (European Structural Integrity Assessment Procedure) was used for this assessment.
Ključne besede: welding, welded joints, pipelines, fracture toughness testing, structure integrity assessment procedure
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1012; Prenosov: 50
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9.
The pre-cracking of wide plate specimens
Vladimir Gliha, Danilo Rojko, 2003, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The behaviour of uniformly thick small- and large-scale fracture-toughness specimens was analysed during fatigue-crack progression. Because of the increasing crack length, the stiffness of the specimens decreases. If cyclic loading is applied in the load-control mode, the stress-intensity factor range, ▫$Delta$▫K, and crack growth per cycle, da/dN, increase, which is not appropriate for controlling the size of the crack. The increase in ▫$Delta$▫K for the wide plate (WP) specimens discussed is three times lower than for single edge notch bend (SENB) and compact tension (CT) specimens. The loading range decreases if cyclic loading is applied in the displacement-control mode. The values of ▫$Delta$▫K and da/dN for SENB and CT specimens then decrease, which is helpful for controlling the crack size; however, they increase for the WP specimens in spite of lowering the loading range. This increase is one third lower than for the load-control mode, which means that it is somewhat easier to control the size of crack.
Ključne besede: fracture toughness, specimen, pre-cracking, fatigue crak, crack size, stress intensity factor
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1128; Prenosov: 63
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

10.
The fracture behaviour of global/local mis-matched weld joints provided on HSLA steels
Inoslav Rak, Nenad Gubeljak, Zdravko Praunseis, 2001, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The fracture behaviour of thick section high strength steel weldments, that contain soft root passes, has been studied. Two different weld consumables with different strength mismatch (1>M>1) and fracture toughness properties in the WM have significantly increased the complexity of the mis-match effect and failure behaviour of weld joints, depending on the crack location and the thickness of the soft root layer. The aim was to explain the effect of strength heterogeneity between BM and WM and between different regions in WM (global/local mismatching). R-curves of WM and HAZ regions were also discussed. The conclusion is that the application of a welding procedure with a two-pass soft root layer, introduced for the purpose of reducing or even omitting preheating, can be recommended in mis-matched weld joints on steel grade HT80. Nevertheless, the alloying from BM, and the tempering effect of subsequent weld passes, have to be taken into account. They can cause reduction of the root region ductility and affect the local mismatch in WM and HAZ. The deterioration by providing a soft root layer can probably be reduced by a selected consumable and proper welding procedure. The final conclusion is that the application of a mismatched weld joint with a soft root layer can be recommended only if high root toughness can be provided.
Ključne besede: welding, welded joints, strength mismatching, fracture toughness, CTOD, hardness, impact toughness, HSLA steels
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1191; Prenosov: 60
.pdf Celotno besedilo (441,77 KB)
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