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Anxiety and Alcohol Consumption in Young Adults: The Moderating Role of Gender and The Mediating Roles of Avoidant Coping and Satisfaction with Life
Monika Ficjan, 2021, master's thesis

Abstract: Young adults are individuals facing responsibilities, privileges, opportunities, and important developmental changes that accompany the period of emerging adulthood. Increases in various mood changes, anxiety and depression symptoms, widespread use of coping strategies, increased alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems are not uncommon during this time. The main aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between anxiety and alcohol consumption among young adults. Additionally, the effect of gender as a moderator, and avoidant coping and satisfaction with life as mediators, was tested and analysed. The participants were a part of a large national study of young people’s mental health in Ireland (My World Survey 2). The final sample included 5859 young adults aged 18 to 25 years, 71,2% of whom were females. The measures used in the current study were Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Anxiety Subscale in the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, Avoidant Coping Subscale in the Adapted Coping Strategy Indicator and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The results indicated that anxiety significantly predicted alcohol consumption, however, explained only 0,9 % of the total variance. The gender moderation analysis indicated that gender was a significant moderator in the relationship between anxiety and alcohol consumption. While the results notably indicated that increases in anxiety led to higher alcohol consumption in both males and females, the association was significantly stronger for the former. Further, avoidant coping was found to mediate the relationship between anxiety and alcohol use. Young adults that experienced higher anxiety symptoms were more likely to use avoidant coping strategies, which in turn led to higher alcohol consumption. Satisfaction with life did not mediate the relationship between anxiety and alcohol consumption. As such, the current study offers additional insights on the relationship between anxiety and alcohol consumption among young adults.
Keywords: young adults, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, anxiety, avoidant coping, satisfaction with life
Published: 31.05.2021; Views: 109; Downloads: 11
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Self-protective behaviour among young adults during public health crisis
Luka Jelovčan, Kaja Prislan, Anže Mihelič, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine perceptions of factors deriving from the theory of planned behaviour among younger adults in times of public health crisis, their self-protective behaviour compared to other age groups, and test the predictive factors according to the theory of planned behaviour. Design/Methods/Approach: An online survey has been conducted to examine self-protective behaviour in times of public health crisis. The survey was distributed to Slovenian citizens (n = 280) using the social network Facebook. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample and measured variables. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine associations between identified factors. Findings: The results of the study indicate that there are no significant differences in self-reported self-protection between younger adults and others. Additionally, attitude toward self-protective measures is the most important predictor of self-protective behaviour for both age groups. Only the attitude is significantly associated with self-protective behaviour among young adults, whereas among others, all three predictors are significantly associated with self-protective behaviour, explaining nearly twice the variance. Research Limitations/Implications: This research contributes to the understanding of motivators that drive individuals to engage in self-protective behaviour in times of health crises. It provides insight into young adults' self-protective behaviour. Most of the limitations are related to the sample, which only contains respondents from one social network and one country. Originality/Value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explored the self-protective behaviour of young adults during COVID-19 using the theory of planned behaviour and compares the differences in self-protective behaviour predictors among different age groups.
Keywords: theory of planned behaviour, young adults, self-protection
Published: 04.01.2021; Views: 132; Downloads: 9
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Izračun oblike proste površine magnetne tekočine v homogenem magnetnem polju
Mislav Trbušić, 2020, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Doktorska naloga obravnava problematiko izračuna oblike proste površine magnetne tekočine v homogenem in statičnem magnetnem polju. Če magnetno tekočino, ki je stabilna koloidna suspenzija magnetnih nanodelcev, izpostavimo zunanjemu magnetnemu polju, ki presega določeno kritično vrednost, se bodo na prosti površini tekočine ustvarile konicam podobne oblike. Razporeditev in višina konic bo odvisna od jakosti magnetnega polja, kot tudi od lastnosti tekočine. V nalogi sta teoretično in numerično obravnavana dva primera, in sicer primer osamljene konice v dvodimenzionalni osno simetrični postavitvi ter centralne konice v heksagonalnem periodičnem vzorcu, ki je vpeta v tri-razsežnostni prostor. V prvem primeru je vodilna enačba magnetno razširjena nelinearna Young-Laplaceova enačba, pri tem obliko proste površine opisuje polinomska funkcija v valjnem koordinatnem sistemu. Drugi primer temelji na energijskem funkcionalu, ki zajema magnetno, gravitacijsko in površinsko energijo. V tem primeru je površina aproksimirana z valovnimi funkcijami oziroma z vsoto treh ravninskih valov, katerih valovni vektorji so v kartezičnem koordinatnem sistemu krajevno premaknjeni za 2/3. Računska strategija je zastavljena na način, da se najprej ovrednoti magnetno polje v prostoru, za kar je uporabljena metoda končnih elementov in nato deformacija proste površine, pri tem je v slednjem postopku naloga zastavljena kot optimizacijski problem, ki se v primeru osamljene konice v 2D prostoru rešuje s pomočjo algoritma diferenčne evolucije, v primeru centralne konice v heksagonalni razporeditvi pa z uporabo kombinacije algoritma diferenčne evolucije in Ritzove metode. Rezultati numeričnega modela deformacije proste površine magnetne tekočine so primerjani z računskimi in merjenimi vrednostmi, ki so dostopne v literaturi, saj zadovoljivih meritev ni bilo možno izvesti. Eksperimentalno in numerično je bila ovrednotena razporeditev magnetnega polja v ravnini nad konicami magnetne tekočine, s čimer je bilo potrjeno teoretično predvidevanje, da je razporeditev magnetnega polja nad tekočino podobna razporeditvi konic na prosti površini.
Keywords: Rosensweigova nastabilnost, heksagonalna razporeditev, ferofluid, metoda končnih elementov (MKE), diferenčna evolucija (DE), energijski funkcional, Young-Laplaceova enačba, Ritzova metoda
Published: 11.08.2020; Views: 363; Downloads: 71
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Giving voice to 'youth of today'
Anneke Evenepoel, Jenneke Christiaens, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this article is to present findings on a study into the field of prevention of youth crime and deviance in Belgium. This research took place within the framework of a European study YouPrev that involved six European countries. Design/Methods/Approach: On one hand, a school survey was conducted with youngsters aged between 14 and 17 years in three regions: an urban, a semi-rural/urban and a rural area. Based on the new ISRD-3, in addition to classic self-report questions, the instrument also focused on young people’s views and perceptions regarding practices and initiatives aimed at preventing youth delinquency. To enhance the richness of these results, group discussions and interviews with youngsters were organised in the same regions, addressing the same topic. Findings: The major finding was that the youngsters that participated in the study do not seem to be part of classical prevention target groups. They attach great importance to informal actors in controlling and preventing youth crime (while formal actors like police, social work and prevention services are the main professions involved in Belgium). When it comes to their possible deviant behaviour, the survey pointed out that the majority appear not to use alcohol and drugs in a problematic way, and they don’t seem to have much contact with police or other legal actors. Furthermore, the respondents have very limited experience with and knowledge about prevention activities in their area, not only about secondary and tertiary but also general prevention initiatives. This could imply that the ‘best’ prevention is the activity that is not brought forward and perceived as such, a new hypothesis that would be interesting for further research. Research Limitations / Implications: Conducting research in the field of prevention should move beyond the school and more into the field of prevention practices, from different epistemological perspectives. This implies that the actual target groups of these practices should be included and be given a voice. If we want to find out more about ‘best practices’ in the prevention of youth crime, it is essential to question the views and perspectives of youngsters who were actually involved in prevention projects. Practical Implications: To take into account the views of the target groups in the study of the field of youth crime prevention may open up new, and maybe very different, directions for policy and practice on how to approach and react to youth delinquency and deviance. In an European Study regarding the prevention of youth deviance and violence (“YouPrev: Youth deviance and youth violence: A European multi-agency perspective on best practices in prevention and control”), Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain have conducted surveys among 13 to 17 year old students. Based on the new ISRD-3 instrument, in addition to the classic selfreport questions, the survey also focused on their perceptions and views regarding practices and initiatives aimed at preventing youth delinquency. In this article, we will present the results collected in Belgium. The aim is to stimulate reflection and contribute to the international discussion regarding a very popular topic today by adding the perspective of the seemingly ‘unpopular’ key players.
Keywords: prevention, youth crime, young people’s perspective, Belgium
Published: 23.04.2020; Views: 315; Downloads: 11
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Use of animated songs in early teaching of English and German
Janja Stariha, 2019, master's thesis

Abstract: This MA thesis deals with animated songs and their use in early foreign language teaching. In the theoretical part I have described child development, first and second language acquisition, multimedia, foreign language teaching and the use of songs in the classroom. As the literature on animated songs has not yet been developed, I have turned to theory on multimedia, music and art to formulate a set of criteria for easier choice of animated songs for use in class. In the empirical part I have chosen some high quality, didactically apropriate animated songs. Content, sound, music, text, design, animation, multimedia learning theories, art theory and didactics were taken into account. The final part of the paper shows the results of a questionnaire that was forwarded to Slovenian teachers who teach children aged 3–11 to see to what extent they know and use animated songs. Nowadays acces to songs is no longer a problem so it is important for teachers to know how to evaluate multimedia materials. There are both favorable opinions and cautions regarding technology use in childhood, so good judgement is needed. The choice and use of animated songs in the young learner classroom should be didactically justified.
Keywords: animated songs, songs, young learners, foreign language teaching, English, German, multimedia, modern technology, didactics, preschool, primary school
Published: 25.10.2019; Views: 569; Downloads: 89
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The dynamic properties of the snail soil from the Ljubljana marsh
Bojan Žlender, Ludvik Trauner, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: A series of cyclic triaxial tests was performed on snail-soil samples with different porosities. The cyclic loading was performed with a Wykeham Farrance cyclic triaxial system. The investigation was based on a series of tests in which the following conditions were varied: the initial effective pressures (50, 100, and 150 kPa), the void ratio after consolidation (2.0–1.2) and the cyclic loading expressed by the cyclic stress ratio CSR (0.1–1.0). Measurements were made of the stress, the deformation and the pore-water pressure. The results of the tests show that interdependency exists between the geomechanical characteristics and the porosity. These relationships can be expressed as functions of the density, the porosity or the water content. It is evident from the results that the changes in the coefficient of permeability, the coefficient of consolidation, and the coefficient of volume compressibility are non-linear with respect to the changes in the porosity. However, the changes at high porosity are much greater than the changes at low porosity, and the changes of the mechanical parameters, such as the Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the friction angle, are indistinct and almost linear at lower changes of porosity, and after that become non-linear. The initial void ratio e is extremely high and the snail soil is liquid after consolidation; a volume strain of εvol > 16 % is needed for the plastic limit state. The chemical and mineral composition, the particle size distribution and the remains of micro-organisms in the snail soil are constants. In addition, the specific surface is independent of the porosity and the density or unit weight, the porosity and the volume strain are in the well-known correlation. The performed cyclic triaxial tests show the dynamic characteristics of the snail soil and the influence of the porosity on the cyclic loading strength. The snail soil was recognized as a highly sensitive material. A large strain appears after the initial cycles. The pore pressure, increases already during the first cycle, to the hydrostatic part of the cyclic loading, or more (depending on CSR). The damping ratio increases exponentially with strain, after some cycles it reach its maximum value, and after that it decreases to the asymptotic value. The reason for such behaviour is the large deformation. The maximum and asymptotic values of the damping ratio are a changed minimum with a void ratio. There is obviously no influence of the porosity on the damping ratio. The shear modulus is described in relation to shear strain. The increasing of the pore pressure is independent of the porosity until it reaches some value of the pore-pressure ratio (>0.7). Similarly, the increasing of the shear strain becomes dependent on the void ratio until it reaches some particular value of the shear strain (>3%). The deformation and failure lines for the different porosities are determined from the relationship between the shear stress and the effective stress at some shear strain, after 10 cycles. The relationships between the shear stress and the effective stress at some value of the pore-pressure ratio are expressed in a similar way. Two kinds of criteria were used to determine the triggering of liquefaction during the cyclic triaxial tests: first, when the pore pressure becomes equal to the effective confining pressure, and, second, when the axial strain reaches 5% of the double amplitude.
Keywords: snail soil, cyclic triaxial test, porosity, permeability, consolidation, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, damping ratio, Poisson’s ratio, friction angle
Published: 18.05.2018; Views: 857; Downloads: 58
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The influence of porosity on geomechanical characteristics of snail soil in the Ljubljana Marsh
Bojan Žlender, Ludvik Trauner, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: This article focusses on mineralogical and physical characteristics of snail soil and their influence on parameter values of geomechanical characteristics.Snail soil, which got its name from fossil remains, is a typical layer observed in the Ljubljana marsh. It is distincltly porous, saturated and in a liquid consistency state. Snail soil was investigated for mineralogical and physical characteristics in the Laboratory of Soil Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University in Maribor. Mineral and chemical composition, visual appearance, specific surface and grain property were determined. Physical characyteristics show that snail soil is saturated in nature, highly porous and almost liquid. Geomechanical characteristics were investigated for their interdependency on physical characteristics. A series of triaxial tests were performed on snail soil samples of different porosity, density and water content. Cylindrical samples of the height of 100 mm and the diameter of 50 mm were tested using three-axial testing apparatus. The results of the tests show that interdependency exists between geomechanical characteristics and porosity. These relationships can be expressed as functions of density, porosity or water content. It is evident from the results that changes of the coefficient of permeability, the coefficient of consolidation, and the coefficient of volume compressibility are nonlinear with respect to changes in porosity. Changes of mechanical parameters, such as Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio andfriction angle are indistinct and almost linear at lower changes of porosity.
Keywords: geomechanics, properties of soils, snail soil, triaxial testing, porosity, permeability, consolidation, Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio, shear angle
Published: 17.05.2018; Views: 629; Downloads: 40
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Demystifying the Death Taboo: The Role of Young Adult Fiction in English
Nuša Robič, 2018, master's thesis

Abstract: Life brings many wonderful and happy moments; on the other hand, we have to deal with various problems and sad moments. Many of these difficult moments include disease and death, especially when they affect our family members or people around us. Not only adults, but particularly children and juveniles have problems speaking and thinking about death. By reading a variety of literary works that address this theme, I began to wonder how people deal with the death of their close ones, how they grieve and the inevitability of how they accept their own death. I also wondered if death is realistically presented in literature. Therefore, I have decided to analyse selected works of fiction where death appears as a main motif or theme. By reading articles and studies about concept literature for young adults, I began to wonder if death was still perceived as a taboo in young adult literature and how various authors addressed these difficult topics. This question forms the starting point of the research. In the empirical section, I explore (on the basis of a selection of novels) whether death is presented as a taboo or only as a problem in the life of literary characters as a part of concept literature, and whether death in literature is presented as it is perceived by the young adults in our society. Through the analysis, I sought to prove that selected young adult literature reflects modern society. I assume that death is no longer a taboo for adolescents, and they can talk about it without restraint. Since death appears as a leading motif in many literary works, I posit that death is just a morally sensitive topic that allows discussion and perception on multiple levels. I tried to show how various authors verbalize their perception of death.
Keywords: death, taboo, literature, young adult literature, society
Published: 07.03.2018; Views: 648; Downloads: 123
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Developing and fostering creativity through the works of art by young pupils
Kristinka Selaković, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: The aim of this experimental research was to examine the effectiveness and impact of active observation of the work of art by applying specially designed strategies, methods and procedures to the development of general artistic creativity in pupils. The research was conducted on a sample of 199 pupils (the experimental group consisted of 102 pupils, and the control group of 97 pupils) from two primary schools in Užice (Serbia). The conclusions indicate how important it is for children to access the work of art on a personal level, independently and through interaction, as well as to develop their own concepts.
Keywords: creativity, work of art, young pupils, development program, museum
Published: 30.11.2017; Views: 675; Downloads: 272
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Pre-service teachers' attitude towards learning and teaching English to young learners
Silva Bratož, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Considerable attention has recently been invested into researching the influence of affective variables, such as attitudes and motivation on foreign language learning and teaching. The topic is timely and relevant especially at the time when English is being introduced as an obligatory subject in the first cycle of primary school in Slovenia. Two key issues are addressed: attitudes towards learning and teaching English as a foreign language and the profile of the young learners' language teacher. The article presents the results of a small-scale research conducted with a group of primary education students on their attitudes towards learning and teaching English. The results suggest that trainee teachers have moderately positive attitudes towards learning English but diverse attitudes towards teaching a foreign language.
Keywords: English as a foreign language, pre-service teachers, attitudes, motivation, young language learners
Published: 22.09.2017; Views: 474; Downloads: 78
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