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1.
Investigating Winter Temperatures in Sweden and Norway : Potential Relationships with Climatic Indices and Effects on Electrical Power and Energy Systems
Younes Mohammadi, Aleksey Palstev, Boštjan Polajžer, Seyed Mahdi Miraftabzadeh, Davood Khodadad, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive study of winter temperatures in Norway and northern Sweden, covering a period of 50 to 70 years. The analysis utilizes Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) to investigate temperature trends at six selected locations. The results demonstrate an overall long-term rise in temperatures, which can be attributed to global warming. However, when investigating variations in highest, lowest, and average temperatures for December, January, and February, 50% of the cases exhibit a significant decrease in recent years, indicating colder winters, especially in December. The study also explores the variations in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) variations as a crucial climate factor over the last 15 years, estimating a possible 20% decrease/slowdown within the first half of the 21st century. Subsequently, the study investigates potential similarities between winter AMOC and winter temperatures in the mid to high latitudes over the chosen locations. Additionally, the study examines another important climatic index, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and explores possible similarities between the winter NAO index and winter temperatures. The findings reveal a moderate observed lagged correlation for AMOC-smoothed temperatures, particularly in December, along the coastal areas of Norway. Conversely, a stronger lagged correlation is observed between the winter NAO index and temperatures in northwest Sweden and coastal areas of Norway. Thus, NAO may influence both AMOC and winter temperatures (NAO drives both AMOC and temperatures). Furthermore, the paper investigates the impact of colder winters, whether caused by AMOC, NAO, or other factors like winds or sea ice changes, on electrical power and energy systems, highlighting potential challenges such as reduced electricity generation, increased electricity consumption, and the vulnerability of power grids to winter storms. The study concludes by emphasizing the importance of enhancing the knowledge of electrical engineering researchers regarding important climate indices, AMOC and NAO, the possible associations between them and winter temperatures, and addressing the challenges posed by the likelihood of colder winters in power systems.
Keywords: winter temperatures, biogas, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, AMOC, weaking, NAO, North Atlantic Oscillation, SSA, Singular Spectrum Analysis, electrical power and energy systems
Published in DKUM: 15.02.2024; Views: 243; Downloads: 16
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2.
Investigations to establish the influence of the thermal energy field on soil properties
Srinivas Kadali, Susha Lekshmi, Susmita Sharma, D. N. Singh, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper describes details of a study to investigate and demonstrate the changes undergone by soil when it is exposed to elevated temperatures. Such situations are commonly encountered while designing the foundations for the furnaces, boiler units, forging units, brick kilns, rocket launching pads, buried power-supply cables, air-conditioning ducts, underground explosions, disposal of high-level radioactive and industrial toxic wastes, ground modifications or soil-stabilization techniques, etc. As such, investigations to establish changes undergone by the soil when it is exposed to elevated temperatures assume some importance. With this in view, individual samples of six soils, with entirely different characteristics, were subjected to temperatures up to 300°C (sequentially in steps of 50°C) and after each step of thermal treatment, these samples were characterized for their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. Based on a critical synthesis of the results, it has been demonstrated that elevated temperatures cause (i) a change in the color, (ii) an increase in the specific gravity, particle size and weight loss, (iii) a reduction in the specific surface area, cation-exchange capacity and zeta-potential, and (iv) a structural transformation of the soil. Though these changes would affect the engineering properties of the soil to a large extent, the scope of this paper is limited to demonstrating the alterations in physical, chemical and mineralogical changes, only, occurring in the soil when it is exposed to elevated temperatures.
Keywords: elevated temperatures, soil, characterization, physical characteristics, chemical characteristics, mineralogical characteristics
Published in DKUM: 14.06.2018; Views: 1372; Downloads: 63
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3.
The action of a laser on an aluminium target
Višnja Henč-Bartolič, Tonica Bončina, Suzana Jakovljević, Davor Pipić, Franc Zupanič, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: A nitrogen laser beam (337 nm, 6 ns (FWHM), (3.2 [plus minus] 0.2) mJ) was focused with a quartz lens (f = 100 mm) onto an aluminium target in air at normal pressure. The laser irradiation and plasma explosion caused a modification to the Al surface and the deposition of a thin film (droplets) onto a glassy carbon plate. The irradiated target and the deposited material were studied with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a focused-ion-beam (FIB) device. A crater surrounded by a rim was produced on the spot of maximum irradiation on the aluminium target. The crater, very deep in comparison to its width and thickness, was presumably caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The temperatures of the electron and the massive particles were explained.
Keywords: aluminium, laser ablation, thin film deposition, instabilities, temperatures
Published in DKUM: 23.03.2017; Views: 1517; Downloads: 112
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4.
Biodiesel usage at low temperature
Breda Kegl, 2008, original scientific article

Keywords: internal combustion engines, buses, biodiesel fuel, rapeseed oil, fuel injection system, low temperatures
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 1951; Downloads: 105
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