Subcritical water as a green medium for extraction and processing of natural materialsMatej Ravber
, 2016, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: In this doctoral dissertation, the application of subcritical water as a green medium for
the extraction and processing of natural materials is presented. The work is divided into three
main parts. In the first part, subcritical water is proposed as a solvent for the simultaneous
extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from oily seeds. The extraction parameters, such as
temperature, time and material to solvent ratio that yield the highest amounts of both phases
are examined. The quality of both obtained phases is examined. The characteristics of oils
obtained using subcritical water is compared to that obtained using a conventional method.
The second part of this work proposes subcritical water as an efficient solvent for the
isolation of bioactive phenolic compounds from wood waste, that is produced by the forestry
industry. Different wood fractions are firstly extracted in batch-mode and the fraction with the
highest amounts of bioactive compounds is determined. Next, semi-continuous operation is
applied, where the effects of different extraction parameters are studied on the extraction yield
and quality of the extract. The effect of temperature and ethanol addition to the subcritical
water on the content of single phenolic compounds identified in the extracts is observed.
Lastly, the cost of manufacturing of such a product is estimated by evaluating the economics
of different pilot- and industrial-scale processes operating at optimal conditions determined
on the laboratory scale.
The last part proposes the use of subcritical water as an efficient hydrolytic medium
for glycoside bonded antioxidants, specifically those found in waste agro-industrial sources.
Effect of temperature, treatment time, concentration and the atmosphere used for establishing
the pressure in the reactor are first studied on a model glycoside compound - rutin and the
optimal combination of reaction parameters are established for the batch-mode reactor. The
degradation products of the model compound are identified and the concentration/time profiles
of their degradation are observed. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics explaining the
degradation of the rutin standard are evaluated. In the next step, the method is implemented
on a real glycosides-containing extract. The extract is hydrolyzed at conditions obtained from
the first step and the free aglycone is obtained at the highest yields possible. Lastly, the process
is upgraded to continuous operation and the final hydrolyzed high-purity product is recovered.
Keywords: Subcritical water, Biowaste, Extraction, Hydrolysis, Antioxidants, Hydrothermal degradation.
Published: 16.06.2016; Views: 913; Downloads: 152
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