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Modified coefficient of subgrade reaction to laterally loaded piles
Ayhan Gurbuz, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: An accurate prediction of the load capacity of a laterally loaded pile at a permissible displacement is an important concern at the design stage. In contrast to many sophisticated methods, Broms’ method based on moment equilibrium has been preferred by engineers to predict the load capacities of laterally loaded piles due to both its simplicity and because it is established on a way of hand calculation. However, Broms’ method typically overestimates a pile’s lateral load capacity as it requires a constant coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction (nh) into analyses, regardless of the magnitude of the pile’s top displacement. In this study, modified coefficients of subgrade reactions(nh*) that are sensitive to the pile’s top displacement in cohesionless soils are first proposed to improve the performance level of Broms’ method for the prediction of the load capacity of a laterally loaded pile as the pile’s top displacement increases. The modified values of nh* are calibrated using 45 independently free-head, single-driven, full-scale pile tests from 23 sites in cohesionless soils. It is demonstrated that Broms’ method with nh* would correctly estimate a pile’s lateral load-deflection behavior with accuracy levels similar to more complicated methods.
Ključne besede: Broms' method, coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction, p-y curves, strain wedge model
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.10.2018; Ogledov: 961; Prenosov: 440
.pdf Celotno besedilo (735,27 KB)
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Influence of the virtual strain rate of noncohesive granular media on the discrete element method
Kiichi Suzuki, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The discrete element method (DEM) is an alternative computational tool for augmenting laboratory experiments because of its advantages in detailing macro- and micro-mechanical information. However, it should be noted that the DEM does not usually consider the convergence for each time step, because of the necessity for a huge calculation time. In that case, it indicates that the uniqueness of the solution is not guaranteed, except in the case of a very small strain rate, even though the behavior looks qualitatively reasonable. At first, the influence of strain rate among numerically imaginary input parameters for a non-cohesive material was investigated for monotonic, biaxial shear tests. Then, new findings were obtained from the DEM simulations. Strain rate has a significant influence on the shear behavior, especially after the peak strength of dense specimens. A quasi-static steady state exists, not a static steady state. The “strong” fabric ratio is closely related to the stress ratio. The maximum slip coordination number occurs around the phase-transformation ratio and the shear band appears around the peak strength.
Ključne besede: discrete element method, DEM, induced anisotropy, quasi-static steady state, strain rate, uniqueness
Objavljeno v DKUM: 14.06.2018; Ogledov: 802; Prenosov: 112
.pdf Celotno besedilo (690,97 KB)
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Prediction of the pile behaviour under dynamic loading using embedded strain sensor technology
Andrej Štrukelj, Mirko Pšunder, Helena Vrecl-Kojc, Ludvik Trauner, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A standard dynamic loading test of the pile was performed on the highway section Slivnica - Hajdina near Maribor, Slovenia. Parallel to standard testing procedures the new monitoring technology based on specially developed strain sensors installed inside the pile body along the pile axis was introduced. On the basis of the measured results the normal strains along the pile axis were measured. Taking into consideration the elastic modulus of the concrete the normal stresses in the axial direction of the pile were also calculated and afterwards the shear stresses along the pile shaft have been estimated as well as the normal stresses below the pile toe. The estimation was made by considering a constant value for the pile diameter. The measured results were also compared with the computer simulation of the pile and the soil behaviour during all the successive test phases. The strain measurements inside the pile body during the standard dynamic loading test in present case did not have the purpose of developing an alternative method of pile loading tests. The presented monitoring technology proved itself as a very accurate and consistent. It gave in the first place the possibility of a closer look at the strains and stresses of the most unapproachable parts of different types of concrete structure elements especially piles and other types of deep foundations.
Ključne besede: piles, deep foundations, dynamic loading test, strain measurement technologies, elasto-plastic modelling, finite-element method
Objavljeno v DKUM: 06.06.2018; Ogledov: 922; Prenosov: 71
.pdf Celotno besedilo (780,04 KB)
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The assesment of pile shaft resistance based on axial strain measurements during the loading test
Andrej Štrukelj, Stanislav Škrabl, Ksenija Štern, Janko Logar, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Near Maribor, a new bridge over the Drava river is being under construction. Before the main works actually started, static and dynamic loading tests of piles were performed. The goal of the static loading test was to determine the bearing capacitiy of the test pile. It was also interesting to determine the share of the axial load distributed on the shaft and pile toe. In order to measure the distribution of the axial force along the pile, a specially made steel canal was built in the pile before concreting. Inside this canal the strain gauges were distributed evenly at the distance of one meter. The strains were measured for each loading phase in all measuring points. The distribution of the axial force was assessed from the obtained results and based on the distribution of the axial force the shaft resistance could be determined. The unexpectedly high bearing capacity of the pile shaft made the obtained results highly interesting. In this paper, measuring methods and measuring results are discussed. Behaviour of the pile and the soil during the loading test were also modelled by axial symmetric and three dimensional models. The calculated and measured results show a very good agreement.
Ključne besede: civil engineering, bridges, soil mechanics, pile shaft resistance, loading test, strain measurements, elastoplastic soil modelling, finite element method
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.05.2018; Ogledov: 1033; Prenosov: 62
.pdf Celotno besedilo (987,58 KB)
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Evaluation of stress intensity factors using finite elements
Boštjan Zafošnik, Zoran Ren, Miran Ulbin, Jože Flašker, 2002, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The paper describes a suitability of Virtual Crack Extension (VCE) method for numerical simulation of crack propagation under mixed mode loading. The suitability of VCE method was determined using The Compact-Tension-Shear (CTS), which is subjected to fracture Mode I, Mode II or mixed mode (Mode I + Mode II) loading. In mixed mode the crack kinks when fracture crack growth occurs. Kink angle is determined with VCE method, which is an energy method, maximum tangential stress (MTS) criterion, strain energy density (SED) criterion and experimental results. Determination of crack propagation angle using MTS and SED criterion is based in regard to the stress intensity factors KI and KII. Stress intensity factors are determined using the maximum energy release rate theory using complex J integral, crack opening displacement method and method of stresses extrapolation. Bigger is the rate between KII and KI, crack path, determined with VCE method, propagates more slowly to the kink angle, determined with experiment. The computational results show that the VCE method is suitable for crack propagation, when KI around the crack tip is dominant. In case where KII is dominant, crack does not kink immediately as in other two criteria. When KII dominates around a crack tip, MTS criterion is the most appropriate for determination of kink angle.
Ključne besede: fracture mechanics, stress intensity factors, CTS specimen, crack propagation, virtual crack extension method, strain energy density criterion, maximum tangential stress criterion
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 2146; Prenosov: 38
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Critical plane modelling of fatigue initiation under rolling and sliding contact
Matjaž Šraml, Jože Flašker, Iztok Potrč, 2004, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Contact fatigue is a phenomenon of important practical significance for engineering applications involving localized contacts, such as gears, rail wheel system and rolling bearings. The service lifetime of such components is related to damage, which results from the contact fatigue. The process in the material structure that causes this kind of failure is quite complicated. The aim of the present paper is to describe a contact fatigue initiation criterion, based on the critical plane approach for the general contact problem. On the basis of contact stress analysis with modified Hertzian boundary conditions, the loading cycle of characteristic material points in the contact area is determined. The Dang Van damage initiation criterion is based on the critical plane approach, which combines the largest allowable shearing and hydrostatic stresses (tensile and compressive), with an assumed elastic shakedown behaviour and it is used in this work. The material point of initial fatigue damage is then determined at the transition of the loading cycle stresses over the critical plane. The model assumed a homogeneous and elastic material model, without any imperfections or residual stresses, and elastic shakedown is considered. A proper determination of loading cycles and their characteristic values is of significance for contact fatigue initiation analysis. Finally, determination of the most critical material point on or under the contact surface and related number of loading cycles required for fatigue damage initiation is calculated with the strain-life (▫$epsilon$▫-N) method.
Ključne besede: machine elements, contact fatigue, crack initiation, strain life method, critical plane approach, numerical modeling
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1697; Prenosov: 106
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