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Reduction of surface defects by optimization of casting speed using genetic programming : an industrial case study
Miha Kovačič, Uroš Župerl, Leo Gusel, Miran Brezočnik, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Štore Steel Ltd. produces more than 200 different types of steel with a continuous caster installed in 2016. Several defects, mostly related to thermomechanical behaviour in the mould, originate from the continuous casting process. The same casting speed of 1.6 m/min was used for all steel grades. In May 2023, a project was launched to adjust the casting speed according to the casting temperature. This adjustment included the steel grades with the highest number of surface defects and different carbon content: 16MnCrS5, C22, 30MnVS5, and 46MnVS5. For every 10 °C deviation from the prescribed casting temperature, the speed was changed by 0.02 m/min. During the 2-month period, the ratio of rolled bars with detected surface defects (inspected by an automatic control line) decreased for the mentioned steel grades. The decreases were from 11.27 % to 7.93 %, from 12.73 % to 4.11 %, from 16.28 % to 13.40 %, and from 25.52 % to 16.99 % for 16MnCrS5, C22, 30MnVS5, and 46MnVS5, respectively. Based on the collected chemical composition and casting parameters from these two months, models were obtained using linear regression and genetic programming. These models predict the ratio of rolled bars with detected surface defects and the length of detected surface defects. According to the modelling results, the ratio of rolled bars with detected surface defects and the length of detected surface defects could be minimally reduced by 14 % and 189 %, respectively, using casting speed adjustments. A similar result was achieved from July to November 2023 by adjusting the casting speed for the other 27 types of steel. The same was predicted with the already obtained models. Genetic programming outperformed linear regression.
Keywords: continuous casting of steel, surface defects, automatic control, machine learning, modelling, optimisation, prediction, linear regression, genetic programming
Published in DKUM: 25.03.2024; Views: 207; Downloads: 10
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Modelling of fatigue microfracture in porous sintered steel using a phase-field method
Zoran Tomić, Tomislav Jarak, Tomislav Lesičar, Nenad Gubeljak, Zdenko Tonković, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Porosity in sintered materials negatively affects its fatigue properties. In investigating its influence, the application of numerical simulations reduces experimental testing, but they are computationally very expensive. In this work, the application of a relatively simple numerical phase-field (PF) model for fatigue fracture is proposed for estimation of the fatigue life of sintered steels by analysis of microcrack evolution. A model for brittle fracture and a new cycle skipping algorithm are used to reduce computational costs. A multiphase sintered steel, consisting of bainite and ferrite, is examined. Detailed finite element models of the microstructure are generated from high-resolution metallography images. Microstructural elastic material parameters are obtained using instrumented indentation, while fracture model parameters are estimated from experimental S–N curves. Numerical results obtained for monotonous and fatigue fracture are compared with data from experimental measurements. The proposed methodology is able to capture some important fracture phenomena in the considered material, such as the initiation of the first damage in the microstructure, the forming of larger cracks at the macroscopic level, and the total life in a high cycle fatigue regime. However, due to the adopted simplifications, the model is not suitable for predicting accurate and realistic crack patterns of microcracks.
Keywords: sintered steel, microcracks, fatigue, phase-field method, porosity
Published in DKUM: 09.02.2024; Views: 276; Downloads: 17
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Innovative structural systems for timber buildings : A comprehensive review of contemporary solutions
Miroslav Premrov, Vesna Žegarac Leskovar, 2023, review article

Abstract: The remarkable development of timber construction technologies in recent decades has led to an increase in the number of timber buildings worldwide, including multi-storey buildings. The design of timber buildings, especially those of greater height, is relatively demanding and, even in the context of architectural expression, has certain constraints due to the specific structural and physical properties of this material. Thus, it is important for designers to have an overview of existing timber structural systems and their specificities to be able to make the right design decisions during the design process. Unfortunately, there is a lack of scientific literature that systematically addresses the essential features of contemporary timber structural systems. Within the aims of this paper to provide the systematic review of contemporary structural systems, both the scientific and professional literature are comprehensively reviewed. This paper presents a systematic classification and description of the following structural systems of timber buildings: all-timber and hybrid timber structural systems with an additional description of constituent structural elements, while examples of completed multi-storey timber buildings are also given for each structural system. The findings provide a broader view of the knowledge of contemporary solutions of timber structural systems and their application, thus representing a novelty in the field of timber construction review.
Keywords: timber structural systems, hybrid timber structural system, timber-concrete composite, timber-steel composite, timber-timber composite, timber structural elements, timber buildings, multi-storey timber buildings
Published in DKUM: 09.02.2024; Views: 220; Downloads: 25
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Analysis of higher-order bézier curves for approximation of the static magnetic properties of NO electrical steels
Ermin Rahmanović, Martin Petrun, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Adequate mathematical description of magnetization curves is indispensable in engineering. The accuracy of the description has a significant impact on the design of electric machines and devices. The aim of this paper was to analyze the capability of Bézier curves systematically, to describe the nonlinear static magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels, and to compare this approach versus the established mathematical descriptions. First, analytic functions versus measurements were analyzed. The Bézier curves were then compared systematically with the most adequate analytic functions. Next, the most suitable orders of Bézier curves were determined for the approximation of nonlinear magnetic properties, where the influence of the range of the input measurement dataset on the approximation process was analyzed. Last, the extrapolation capabilities of the Bézier curves and analytic functions were evaluated. The general conclusion is that Bézier curves have adequate flexibility and significant potential for the approximation and extrapolation of nonlinear properties of non-oriented electrical steels.
Keywords: analytical modeling, anhysteretic curve, applied mathematics, Bézier curve, curve fitting, first magnetization curve, major loop, mathematical modeling, non-oriented electrical steel
Published in DKUM: 01.02.2024; Views: 304; Downloads: 15
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Fracture toughness of HSLA welds made on penstock material
Zdravko Praunseis, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The presence of different microstructures along the pre-crack fatigue front has a significant effect on the critical crack tip opening displacement (CTOD). This value is the relevant parameter for the safe servicing of welded structures (penstocks). In the case of specimens with the through-thickness notch partly in the weld metal, partly in the heat-affected zone, and partly in the base material, i.e., using the composite notched specimen, the fracture behaviour significantly depends on the portion of the ductile base material, the size, and the distribution of mismatching factor along the vicinity of the crack front.
Keywords: High Strength low Alloyed Steel, CTOD Fracture Toughness Testing, CTOD-R resistance Curve, Welded joints
Published in DKUM: 22.12.2023; Views: 529; Downloads: 6
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Experimental and numerical analysis of fracture mechanics behavior of heterogeneous zones in S690QL1 grade high strength steel (HSS) welded joint
Damir Tomerlin, Dražan Kozak, Luka Ferlič, Nenad Gubeljak, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The heterogeneity of welded joints’ microstructure affects their mechanical properties, which can vary significantly in relation to specific weld zones. Given the dimensional limitations of the available test volumes of such material zones, the determination of mechanical properties presents a certain challenge. The paper investigates X welded joint of S690QL1 grade high strength steel (HSS), welded with slightly overmatching filler metal. The experimental work is focused on tensile testing to obtain stress-strain properties, as well as fracture mechanics testing. Considering the aforementioned limitations of the material test volume, tensile testing is carried out with mini tensile specimens (MTS), determining stress-strain curves for each characteristic weld zone. Fracture mechanical testing is carried out to determine the fracture toughness using the characteristic parameters. The experimental investigation is carried out using the single edge notch bend (SENB) specimens located in several characteristic welded joint zones: base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ), and weld metal (WM). Fractographic analysis provides deeper insight into crack behavior in relation to specific weld zones. The numerical simulations are carried out in order to describe the fracture behavior of SENB specimens. Damage initiation and evolution is simulated using the ductile damage material behavior. This paper demonstrates the possibility of experimental and numerical determination of fracture mechanics behavior of characteristic heterogeneous welded joint zones and their influence on crack path growth.
Keywords: heterogeneous welded joint, high strength steel, mechanical testing, damage, fracture, mechanical properties, finite element analysis
Published in DKUM: 30.11.2023; Views: 349; Downloads: 19
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The influence of delta ferrite on the quality assessment of austenitic stainless steel welds for the production of ovens
Zdravko Praunseis, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Rust-resistant metals, such as the popular stainless steel, often contain some quantities of delta ferrite that lower the mechanical properties of welded joints. The results of the study show that the amount of ferrite influences the quality assessment of austenitic stainless steel welds for the production of ovens using the resistance seam welding process. In this article, the basic device of resistance seam welding for the production of stainless steel welds is described. The device itself will have a significant role in the operation of the line; therefore, it was very precisely constructed and designed.
Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, delta ferrite, quality assessment, welded joints, production of ovenss
Published in DKUM: 15.11.2023; Views: 360; Downloads: 8
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Amoxicillin doped hyaluronic acid/fucoidan multifunctional coatings for medical grade stainless steel orthopedic implants
Matej Bračič, Sanja Potrč, Matjaž Finšgar, Lidija Gradišnik, Uroš Maver, Hanna Budasheva, Dorota Korte, Mladen Franko, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This work investigated the potential of amoxicillin-doped hyaluronic acid/fucoidan multifunctional coatings on medical grade stainless steel as biocompatible, osteointegration enhancing, antimicrobial, and bacterial biofilm inhibiting coatings for orthopedic implants. The coatings were prepared by layer-by-layer spin coating and confirmed by optical contact angle goniometry and infrared spectroscopy. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed a homogeneous distribution of the individual layers. In contrast, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity measurements by photothermal beam deflection spectrometry showed diffusion of the amoxicillin into the hyaluronic acid and fucoidan layers. In vitro release of amoxicillin showed complete release within one hour, as reflected by the formation of inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Synergistic effects were observed between the hyaluronic acid and amoxicillin in inhibiting S.Aureus biofilm, and between the fucoidan and amoxicillin in improving the antioxidant properties by an ABTS radical scavenging assay. Biocompatibility was determined with human osteoblasts, confirming the potential of such multifunc- tional coatings to enhance the bioactivity of steel-based orthop edic implants.
Keywords: orthopedic implant, medical grade stainless steel, amoxicillin, hyaluronic acid, fucoidan, multifunctional coating
Published in DKUM: 18.08.2023; Views: 480; Downloads: 86
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A multiscale approach to deformation and fracture of heat-resistant steel under static and cyclic loading
P. O. Maruščak, Denys Baran, Vladimir Gliha, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Regularities of static and cyclic deformation, damage and fracture of heat-resistant steel 25Kh1M1F, based on the approaches of physical mesomechanics and 3D interferometry method, are presented in this paper. The applicability of these techniques for different hierarchy levels of deformation was studied. The investigation of scanning microscope photos was conducted for several dissipative structures, fragmentation of the material, localisation of macrodeformation and subsequent failure on macro- and mesolevel. It is shown that the used modern techniques of experimental analysis are very efficient in understanding deformation and damage evolution in materials.
Keywords: fracture, heat-resistant steel, cyclic loading, fatigue, plastic deformation
Published in DKUM: 18.08.2017; Views: 1388; Downloads: 346
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Suitability of the double Langevin function for description of anhysteretic magnetization curves in NO and GO electrical steel grades
Simon Steentjes, Martin Petrun, G. Glehn, Drago Dolinar, Kay Hameyer, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper compares the match obtained using the classical Langevin function, the tanh function as well as a recently by the authors proposed double Langevin function with the measured anhysteretic magnetization curve of three different non-oriented electrical steel grades and one grain-oriented grade. Two standard non-oriented grades and a high-silicon grade (Si content of 6.5%) made by CVD are analyzed. An excellent match is obtained using the double Langevin function, whereas the classical solutions are less appropriate. Thereby, problems such as those due to propagation of approximation errors observed in hysteresis modeling can be bypassed.
Keywords: polarization, magnetization measurement, magnetic materials, hysteresis models, Langevin function, electrical steel, saturation
Published in DKUM: 03.08.2017; Views: 1172; Downloads: 418
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