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Learning Chinese as a foreign language : an introduction
Juliane House, Dániel Z. Kádár, 2023, drugi znanstveni članki

Opis: In this introductory paper, we first present the background of the present special issue dedicated to Willis Edmondson. We first point out why Edmondson provided a ground-breaking contribution to the field of applied linguistics and why it is particularly timely to edit a special issue centering on his framework. We also argue that Edmondson's bottom-up and strictly language-anchored view on speech acts and interaction is particularly useful to examine the learning of Chinese as a foreign language, by going beyond exoticizing and overgeneralizing views of the Chinese linguaculture. Second, we briefly present what can be regarded as the heart and soul of the Edmondsonian framework, that is, a typology of speech acts and a related procedure through which the relationship between speech acts in interaction can be captured. Third, we present a research procedure that we outlined in our previous work, and which helps implementing the Edmondsonian model in the pragmatic study of foreign language learning. Finally, we present the contents of the special issue.
Ključne besede: Chinese, interaction, speech acts, second language pragmatics
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.02.2024; Ogledov: 172; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (348,04 KB)
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Learning Chinese in a study abroad context : the case of ritual congratulating
Juliane House, Dániel Z. Kádár, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this paper, we explore how and why the realisation of the ritual act of congratulating may turn out to be challenging for foreign learners of Chinese. Congratulating and other ceremonial ritual acts are not only used when someone participates in an actual ritual event: they are also required when they are mentioned in mundane events, like casual interactions when someone talks about a family birthday or wedding. We define congratulation as an interactional move and systematically examine its conventional realisation patterns through a typology of speech acts. We approach congratulating moves by combining a speech act-anchored analysis with the field of study abroad and interaction ritual research. The results of our analysis show that various ritual occasions may trigger different types of inappropriate uses of congratulating by foreign learners of Chinese.
Ključne besede: Chinese, interaction rituals, speech acts, study abroad, congratulating
Objavljeno v DKUM: 20.02.2024; Ogledov: 261; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (462,61 KB)
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Methodology of immersive video application : the case study of a virtual tour
Jure Jazbinšek, Gorazd Hren, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A Virtual Tour is an interactive presentation of real places accessible directly with an Internet browser with no additional installations of apps of plugins. Once, 360° photos are recorded and processed (stitched into spherical panoramas), editing of a Virtual Tour (walk) enables connection of spherical panoramic photos (or videos) into interactive presentations. For an enhanced experience and stand-alone presenting ability, features are added, like natural-sounding voice for text-to-speech descriptions and embedded videos. During multiple virtual tour presentations, users, viewers and presenters reported exceptional usability and an immersive experience. Virtual Tours have great potential to reshape the future education process and establish a new benchmark for presentation. The Virtual Tours application is expected to be used in education, tourism and future building sites or industry, as a key component for workforce briefings, and “as build” documenting of various stages of build, with the possibilities to integrate into Building Information Modelling (BIM) models.
Ključne besede: virtual tour, 360 camera, RICOH THETA Z1, 3dVista, Text to Speech
Objavljeno v DKUM: 13.11.2023; Ogledov: 304; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,21 MB)
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Rhetorical Figures Between Traditional Poetry and Rap
Rok Klemenčič, 2020, magistrsko delo

Opis: This Master’s thesis looks into figures of speech used in classical poetry as compared to rap. With the help of Heinrich F. Plett’s analytic scheme, we have established a model for future linguistic comparison which could be modified and applied to various fields and works. The results of the analysis have shown similarities and differences between poetry and rap from the point of view of figures as well as other rhetorical devices: rhythm, structure, motifs, etc. The figures are identified and their potential influence on the perception of the poem/rap song is analysed. Stylistic analysis serves as a basis for the comparison, and the thematically connected pairs allow us a deeper insight into the selected works. Some similarities beyond the mere use of figures are established, i.e., motifs, themes, rhythm and meter. This analysis allows us to compare the genres, while the results show tendencies and characteristics typical of either traditional poetry or rap, i.e., use of certain rhymes, orthography, and punctuation.
Ključne besede: Figures of speech, Stylistics, Poetry, Rap, Comparative approach
Objavljeno v DKUM: 25.01.2021; Ogledov: 879; Prenosov: 108
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,11 MB)

A monosemic account of modality in speech act theory
Niko Šetar, 2020, magistrsko delo

Opis: Connection between modality in the English language and pragmatics is a matter of extensive debate as it often seems there is no concrete way of establishing a sensible correlation between modality that an utterance contains and its pragmatic function, which is due to numerous issues pertaining to different accounts of both modality and speech act theory. Traditional view of modality splits modal verbs into three categories: epistemic, deontic and dynamic (also known as simple root modality). The problem with this view is that there is no way of determining whether a certain modal verb is used in epistemic, deontic, or dynamic sense as most modals can serve any of the three functions, therefore explaining modality within this framework is highly ambiguous even when relying on broader context of the utterance containing a certain modal. Traditional view of speech acts, on the other hand, divides them into locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary speech acts. Yet it would seem that all modalities pertain only to illocutionary speech acts, as they are the ones that express speaker's intentions, which are most heavily influenced by modality. The connection between traditionalist accounts is therefore quite impossible. A more contemporary view splits speech acts into assertive, commissive, constative, directive and imperative speech acts, while we may consider locution, illocution and perlocution to be aspects of these speech acts, rather than separate categories. In these case, different modalities may be connected to different speech acts, but the ambiguity that traditional view of modality contains persists into any attempt to draw the connection between modality and speech act. Therefore, an alternative account of modality is required. Two well-known such accounts are polysemic and monosemic views of modality. Polysemic views claim that every lexeme (in our case, a modal verb) may possess several semantic meanings, while monosemic views maintain that every lexeme can be defined in the sense of a single meaning. Reviewing polysemic accounts shows that their reliance on multiple meanings and definitions for every lexeme leads to similar ambiguities as the traditional view of modality, and can therefore not be used in our efforts. Monosemic views, however, differ greatly from one another. While some accounts have been shown to be inadequate, Groefsema’s 1995 account serves the required purpose. The author defines each modal verb in the sense of the proposition expressed by the modal and an additional minimal set of propositions that supports the use of that particular modal. Kissine (2013) similarly defines speech acts, thus a correlation between modal verbs and speech acts may be established. Finally, we attempt to show that each modal verb with a particular minimal set of supporting propositions can only feature in one type of speech act, thus also defining the speech act within which it is contained.
Ključne besede: Pragmatics, modality, speech acts, epistemic, deontic, dynamic, assertives, commissives, constatives, directives, imperatives, polysemy, monosemy
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.09.2020; Ogledov: 1065; Prenosov: 100
.pdf Celotno besedilo (355,48 KB)

Gender-Based Conversational Styles in Reality TV
Vesna Videmšek, 2019, magistrsko delo

Opis: This master’s thesis deals with differences in conversational styles between men and women in American reality TV show Big Brother. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the conversations in order to find out whether there exist any differences between male and female speakers in the use of minimal responses, hedges, questions, swear words, overlapping speech and topics in mixed-gender and same-gender conversations. Nine conversations between ten different contestants of the reality TV show Big Brother were randomly selected, transcribed and analyzed. The results of this master’s thesis reveal that women use more hedges and minimal responses than men. There are, however, no gender differences in the placement of minimal responses. Both men and women produce the majority of minimal responses at non-transition relevant places. Furthermore, women swear less than men and use milder swear words. Men, on the other hand, are more inclined to use competitive overlapping speech. They also ask more expressive style questions than women, whereas women ask more relational questions than men. Lastly, there are no significant differences in topic choice between men and women.
Ključne besede: gender, conversational style, reality TV, hedges, minimal responses, swear words, questions, overlapping speech, conversational topics
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.07.2019; Ogledov: 1184; Prenosov: 127
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,27 MB)

Context-dependent factored language models
Gregor Donaj, Zdravko Kačič, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The incorporation of grammatical information into speech recognition systems is often used to increase performance in morphologically rich languages. However, this introduces demands for sufficiently large training corpora and proper methods of using the additional information. In this paper, we present a method for building factored language models that use data obtained by morphosyntactic tagging. The models use only relevant factors that help to increase performance and ignore data from other factors, thus also reducing the need for large morphosyntactically tagged training corpora. Which data is relevant is determined at run-time, based on the current text segment being estimated, i.e., the context. We show that using a context-dependent model in a two-pass recognition algorithm, the overall speech recognition accuracy in a Broadcast News application improved by 1.73% relatively, while simpler models using the same data achieved only 0.07% improvement. We also present a more detailed error analysis based on lexical features, comparing first-pass and second-pass results.
Ključne besede: speech recognition, factored language model, dynamic backoff path, word context, inflectional language, morphosyntactic tags
Objavljeno v DKUM: 26.06.2017; Ogledov: 1674; Prenosov: 360
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,17 MB)
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Online speech/music segmentation based on the variance mean of filter bank energy
Marko Kos, Matej Grašič, Zdravko Kačič, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper presents a novel feature for online speech/music segmentation basedon the variance mean of filter bank energy (VMFBE). The idea that encouraged the feature's construction is energy variation in a narrow frequency sub-band. The energy varies more rapidly, and to a greater extent for speech than for music. Therefore, an energy variance in such a sub-band isgreater for speech than for music. The radio broadcast database and the BNSIbroadcast news database were used for feature discrimination and segmentation ability evaluation. The calculation procedure of the VMFBE feature has 4 out of 6 steps in common with the MFCC feature calculation procedure. Therefore, it is a very convenient speech/music discriminator for use in real-time automatic speech recognition systems based on MFCC features, because valuable processing time can be saved, and computation load is only slightly increased. Analysis of the feature's speech/music discriminative ability shows an average error rate below 10% for radio broadcast material and it outperforms other features used for comparison, by more than 8%. The proposed feature as a stand-alone speech/music discriminator in a segmentation system achieves an overall accuracy of over 94% on radio broadcast material.
Ključne besede: online speech segmentation, algorithm, speech techniques
Objavljeno v DKUM: 26.06.2017; Ogledov: 1219; Prenosov: 435
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,49 MB)
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A comprehensive noise robust speech parameterization algorithm using wavelet packet decomposition-based denoising and speech feature representation techniques
Bojan Kotnik, Zdravko Kačič, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper concerns the problem of automatic speech recognition in noise-intense and adverse environments. The main goal of the proposed work is the definition, implementation, and evaluation of a novel noise robust speech signal parameterization algorithm. The proposed procedure is based on time-frequency speech signal representation using wavelet packet decomposition. A new modified soft thresholding algorithm based on time-frequency adaptive threshold determination was developed to efficiently reduce the level of additive noise in the input noisy speech signal. A two-stage Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based classifier was developed to perform speech/nonspeech as well as voiced/unvoiced classification. The adaptive topology of the wavelet packet decomposition tree based on voiced/unvoiced detection was introduced to separately analyze voiced and unvoiced segments of the speech signal. The main feature vector consists of a combination of log-root compressed wavelet packet parameters, and autoregressive parameters. The final output feature vector is produced using a two-staged feature vector postprocessing procedure. In the experimental framework, the noisy speech databases Aurora 2 and Aurora 3 were applied together with corresponding standardized acoustical model training/testing procedures. The automatic speech recognition performance achieved using the proposed noise robust speech parameterization procedure was compared to the standardized mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) feature extraction procedures ETSI ES 201 108 and ETSI ES 202 050.
Ključne besede: speech parametrization, algorithm, speech techniques
Objavljeno v DKUM: 26.06.2017; Ogledov: 1583; Prenosov: 392
.pdf Celotno besedilo (984,48 KB)
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