1. Cyclic liquefaction potential of lacustrine carbonate from Julian AlpsBojan Žlender, Stanislav Lenart, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: This paper presents the liquefaction studies of lacustrine carbonate silt from the Julian Alp landslide Stože. Geological conditions of the region and geomechanical characteristics of the ground were investigated. The research project was performed with the intention to determine the effects of cyclic loading on lacustrine carbonate silt. Investigation with 77 cyclic triaxial tests was performed on universal triaxial apparatus Wykeham Farrance UP 100 TR, in the Laboratory of soil mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Maribor. The essential equipment comprises cylindrical triaxial apparatus with a cell, a press with appurtenant electro-mechanic equipment, measuring equipment, and computer hardware and software equipment. Specimens with dimensions of height = 140 mm and diameter = 70 mm were saturated, then subjected to the arbitrary initial isotropic stress state and consolidated with vertical and radial draining, and then loaded with distortional loading of chosen dynamical axial force (frequency f = 1 Hz). A set of tests with a spectrum of different stress states and cyclic loading were performed. This research showed that lacustrine carbonate silt is a highly sensitive material.The resistance to liquefaction was somewhat higher than that of typical clean sand, but a perceivable excess pore pressure generation, which causes the decrease of strength parameters, was noticed. Test results of cyclic triaxial tests indicate dynamic characteristics of lacustrine carbonate silt and wide applicability of the test method. Ključne besede: civil engineering, geomechanics, soil investigations, lacustrine carbonate silt, cyclic triaxial tests, liquefaction potential, shear modulus, damping ratio, cyclic stress ratio, pore pressure ratio Objavljeno: 15.05.2018; Ogledov: 191; Prenosov: 11 Celotno besedilo (1,53 MB) |
2. The influence of porosity on geomechanical characteristics of snail soil in the Ljubljana MarshBojan Žlender, Ludvik Trauner, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: This article focusses on mineralogical and physical characteristics of snail soil and their influence on parameter values of geomechanical characteristics.Snail soil, which got its name from fossil remains, is a typical layer observed in the Ljubljana marsh. It is distincltly porous, saturated and in a liquid consistency state. Snail soil was investigated for mineralogical and physical characteristics in the Laboratory of Soil Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University in Maribor. Mineral and chemical composition, visual appearance, specific surface and grain property were determined. Physical characyteristics show that snail soil is saturated in nature, highly porous and almost liquid. Geomechanical characteristics were investigated for their interdependency on physical characteristics. A series of triaxial tests were performed on snail soil samples of different porosity, density and water content. Cylindrical samples of the height of 100 mm and the diameter of 50 mm were tested using three-axial testing apparatus. The results of the tests show that interdependency exists between geomechanical characteristics and porosity. These relationships can be expressed as functions of density, porosity or water content. It is evident from the results that changes of the coefficient of permeability, the coefficient of consolidation, and the coefficient of volume compressibility are nonlinear with respect to changes in porosity. Changes of mechanical parameters, such as Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio andfriction angle are indistinct and almost linear at lower changes of porosity. Ključne besede: geomechanics, properties of soils, snail soil, triaxial testing, porosity, permeability, consolidation, Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio, shear angle Objavljeno: 17.05.2018; Ogledov: 169; Prenosov: 7 Celotno besedilo (486,06 KB) |
3. The dynamic properties of the snail soil from the Ljubljana marshBojan Žlender, Ludvik Trauner, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: A series of cyclic triaxial tests was performed on snail-soil samples with different porosities. The cyclic loading was performed with a Wykeham Farrance cyclic triaxial system. The investigation was based on a series of tests in which the following conditions were varied: the initial effective pressures (50, 100, and 150 kPa), the void ratio after consolidation (2.0–1.2) and the cyclic loading expressed by the cyclic stress ratio CSR (0.1–1.0). Measurements were made of the stress, the deformation and the pore-water pressure.
The results of the tests show that interdependency exists between the geomechanical characteristics and the porosity. These relationships can be expressed as functions of the density, the porosity or the water content. It is evident from the results that the changes in the coefficient of permeability, the coefficient of consolidation, and the coefficient of volume compressibility are non-linear with respect to the changes in the porosity. However, the changes at high porosity are much greater than the changes at low porosity, and the changes of the mechanical parameters, such as the Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the friction angle, are indistinct and almost linear at lower changes of porosity, and after that become non-linear.
The initial void ratio e is extremely high and the snail soil is liquid after consolidation; a volume strain of εvol > 16 % is needed for the plastic limit state.
The chemical and mineral composition, the particle size distribution and the remains of micro-organisms in the snail soil are constants. In addition, the specific surface is independent of the porosity and the density or unit weight, the porosity and the volume strain are in the well-known correlation.
The performed cyclic triaxial tests show the dynamic characteristics of the snail soil and the influence of the porosity on the cyclic loading strength. The snail soil was recognized as a highly sensitive material. A large strain appears after the initial cycles. The pore pressure, increases already during the first cycle, to the hydrostatic part of the cyclic loading, or more (depending on CSR).
The damping ratio increases exponentially with strain, after some cycles it reach its maximum value, and after that it decreases to the asymptotic value. The reason for such behaviour is the large deformation. The maximum and asymptotic values of the damping ratio are a changed minimum with a void ratio. There is obviously no influence of the porosity on the damping ratio.
The shear modulus is described in relation to shear strain. The increasing of the pore pressure is independent of the porosity until it reaches some value of the pore-pressure ratio (>0.7). Similarly, the increasing of the shear strain becomes dependent on the void ratio until it reaches some particular value of the shear strain (>3%).
The deformation and failure lines for the different porosities are determined from the relationship between the shear stress and the effective stress at some shear strain, after 10 cycles.
The relationships between the shear stress and the effective stress at some value of the pore-pressure ratio are expressed in a similar way.
Two kinds of criteria were used to determine the triggering of liquefaction during the cyclic triaxial tests: first, when the pore pressure becomes equal to the effective confining pressure, and, second, when the axial strain reaches 5% of the double amplitude. Ključne besede: snail soil, cyclic triaxial test, porosity, permeability, consolidation, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, damping ratio, Poisson’s ratio, friction angle Objavljeno: 18.05.2018; Ogledov: 445; Prenosov: 21 Celotno besedilo (479,11 KB) |
4. Effect of plasticity and normal stress on the undrained shear modulus of clayey soilsMehrab Jesmani, Hamed Faghihi Kashani, Mehrad Kamalzare, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: The shear modulus, known as Gmax, is a key parameter for predicting the static and dynamic behavior of soils. Its value decreases by increasing the shear strain. This is because of reducing the soil’s stiffness as a result of increasing the shear deformation. The increasing of the shear modulus by increasing the shear strain is affected by some of the soil properties, such as the Void ratio (e), the Over consolidated ratio (OCR), the Normal stress (σ), the Plasticity index (PI), the Water content (ω%), the Shear strain rate, the Soil structure, and the Loading history, etc. In this paper, undrained, direct shear tests were conducted to study the effect of the plasticity index (PI) and the normal stress (σ) on the shear behavior and the shear modulus of remolded clays. The results show that the normalized shear modulus at a constant strain will generally increase as the σ and PI increase, and the common empirical equations for undisturbed soils at γ = 0~0.1 might be applicable for the disturbed soils too. Ključne besede: plasticity index, normal stress, shear modulus, disturbed clayey soils Objavljeno: 11.06.2018; Ogledov: 100; Prenosov: 44 Celotno besedilo (703,46 KB) |
5. Shear modulus of a saturated granular soil derived from resonant-column testsH. Patiño, E. Martínez, Jesús González, A. Soriano, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: This paper presents the results of 120 determinations of the shear modulus (G) of a saturated granular soil (20–40 Ottawa sand) in different conditions of relative density (Dr), effective consolidation pressure (σ’ c) and level of torsional excitation (Te). The equipment used was a resonant-column apparatus manufactured by Wykeham Farrance and the tests were performed with relative density values of 20, 40, 60 and 80%, effective consolidation pressures of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kPa, and torsional excitations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 volts (V), leading to shear strains (γ) between 0.002% and 0.023%. The results led to very simple empirical expressions for the shear modulus as a function of the angular strain for different effective consolidation pressures and void-ratio values. Ključne besede: resonant column, resonant frequency, shear modulus, relative density, effective consolidation pressure, dynamic shear modulus Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 99; Prenosov: 8 Celotno besedilo (1,31 MB) |