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Cross-cultural insight into the association between religiousness and authoritarianism
Sergej Flere, Rudi Klanjšek, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The current study investigated the possible existence of a relationship between authoritarianism and religiousness and the possible strength of this potential relationship. The study involved samples from four cultural environments known to differ substantially in terms of religious salience and content: Slovenia (predominantly Catholic), Serbia (predominantly Eastern Orthodox), Bosnia and Herzegovina (predominantly Muslim), and the United States (predominantly Protestant). Religiousness was assessed by way of religious orientation (including intrinsic and extrinsic orientation) as proposed by Allport (1950), whereas authoritarianism was tapped by a modified Lane scale (1955). Results from zero-order correlations indicated a strong and positive association between authoritarianism and all types of religious orientation, regardless of the sample analyzed. Residualizing the main study constructs by demographic variables did not alter the results. The association changed only when each dimension of religious orientation was controlled for the effect of other dimensions. Results did not lend support to the hypothesis that authoritarianism is more strongly linked to those who are more extrinsically oriented.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, authoritarianism, religiosity, intercultural differences, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, Slovenian catholicism, Bosnian Islam, US protestantism
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 789; Prenosov: 53
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

3.
Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level
Sergej Flere, Miran Lavrič, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah). The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, civil religion, authoritarianism, religiosity, intercultural differences, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, Slovenian catholicism, Bosnian Islam, cross-cultural analyses, anxiety
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 737; Prenosov: 125
.pdf Celotno besedilo (258,08 KB)
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4.
Questioning the need for a special methodology for the study of Eastern Orthodoxy
Sergej Flere, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The particular differences of Eastern Orthodoxy alleged by Tomka (2006) to demand a "special research methodology" are tested on a sample of the Serbian Orthodox, comparing them to Slovenian Catholics and American Protestants. The author found no important differences in the direction suggested by Tomka, with respect to the relation between traditionalism and religiosity, to religious experience, to civil religion, to quest religiosity, to religious deeds/sacrifices (consequential religiosity), either structurally or as to magnitude. The exception is to be found in a somewhat stronger link between traditionalism and religiosity among the Orthodox, but the level of traditionalism among this group is lower than in the American Protestant case. Most of the differences found between the groups are attributable to higher magnitudes of religiosity in the American Protestant sample, but a clear peculiarity emerged indicating a higher presence of guilt religiosity in the Serbian Orthodox sample. The concept of God in this environment is that of a punishing God, along with a predominance of extrinsic psychological religiosity, leading to a psychologically disaffected (negative affect) situation.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, religiosity, religious experiences, extrinsic orientation, quest religiosity, consequentialiy
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 774; Prenosov: 44
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

5.
The role of culture in the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being
Miran Lavrič, Sergej Flere, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Several measures of religious practice and religious orientation (intrinsic/extrinsic/quest) and two measures of psychological well-being (positive affect and negative affect) have been employed in a cross-cultural survey of undergraduate university students from five different cultural/religious environments: Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, the United States of America, and Japan. Results suggest that measures of exstrinsic, intrinsic, and quest religiosity are not entirely applicable in most of the cultures observed. Nevertheless, it was possible to discern abbreviated cross-culturally valid scales for each dimension. The strength and direction of the correlation between psychological well-being and a particular type of religious orientation proved to depend substantially upon culture. More importantly, the cultural environment plays a crucial role in shaping the relationship between general measures of religiosity and psychological well-being. According to the data, higher general levels of religiosity at the societal level are linked to more positive correlations between religiosity and psychological well-being. The overall picture leads to the conclusion that there is no culturally universal pattern in the relationship between measures of religiosity and psychological well-being and that the particular cultural and religious context should always be considered in studies dealing with this issue.
Ključne besede: religiosity, culture, intercultural differences, religious belief, religious orientation, social differences, anxiety, psychological well-being, cross-cultural studies
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 947; Prenosov: 56
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

6.
Is intrinsic religious orientation a culturally specific American Protestant concept? : the fusion of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation among non-Protestants
Sergej Flere, Miran Lavrič, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The relationship between intrinsic and personal extrinsic religious orientation as suggested by Gorsuch and McPherson is studied within four denominational samples of university students in four different cultural environments. Results show that intrinsic and extrinsic personal religious orientation form two separate dimensions only within the American Protestant sample. In three different European religious environments (one Eastern Orthodox, one Islamic, and one Roman Catholic), all extrinsic personal and intrinsic items can be combined into a single dimension. It is speculated that the intrinsic orientation may be culturally tied to Protestantism.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, religious orientation, religious environments, religiosity, religious experiences, intrinsic orientation, extrinsic orientation
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 819; Prenosov: 26
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

7.
Gender and religious orientation
Sergej Flere, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Gender has been proven to be a substantial indicator of differences with respect to religiosity within Christianity. Females are always more frequentlyand intensively religious in comparison to males (Francis, 1997). The question of whether this holds for other religions remains unanswered. In this study we focus on university students in Catholic, Christian Orthodox andMuslim environments of Central Europe and in an American, predominantly Protestant environment. Religiosity is studied by differentiating between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity (Allport and Ross, 1967). If it were foundthat females are more social-extrinsic religious, one couldspeak of a sociological, instrumental and situational religiosity among females. On the contrary, one is closer to speaking of an immanent difference between the genders. Sociological (with the exception of socialization) and Freudian explanations are not confirmed. Psychological explanations, which include anxiety, authoritarianism and femininity (Bem,1981) are good at explaining thedifferences in religiosity between the genders.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, religious orientation, religious environments, religiosity, religious experiences, intrinsic orientation, extrinsic orientation, gender differences, gender
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 859; Prenosov: 38
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

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