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An evaluation of marine sediments in terms of their usability in the brick industry
Patrik Baksa, Franka Cepak, Rebeka Kovačič Lukman, Vilma Ducman, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: A dredging process is essential for the development of harbours and ports, allowing the functional daily operation of the port. The management of dredged material represents a worldwide challenge, especially considering unwanted deposition of material. Because of their chemical, petrographic, mineralogical and homogeneity composition, marine sediments could represent an appropriate raw material for the brick industry, particularly for the production of clay blocks, roofing and ceramic tiles. In this study dredged material from Port of Koper was tested for such use, thus various analyses were carried out in order to determine if the dredged material is environmentally friendly and suitable for use in the brick industry. These included: chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis, particle size analysis, chloride content analysis and tests of firing in a gradient furnace. Furthermore, tests of mechanical properties, as well as tests of the frost-resistance of the samples were carried out. On the basis of the primary analyses and samples prepared in a laboratory, it was confirmed that marine sediments from the Port of Koper, without any additives are only conditionally suitable as a source material for producing brick products, because without additives they exhibit too much shrinkage on drying and firing, as well as high water absorption, this can be improved by the incorporation of suitable additives, for example, virgin clay or other suitable waste material. The approach described herewith can also be followed to assess sediments from other ports and rivers regarding its potential use in clay brick sector.
Keywords: dredge marine sediment, recycling, clay bricks, mechanical properties, chemical analysis
Published: 21.12.2017; Views: 1334; Downloads: 99
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Synergistic chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of poly (ethylene terephthalate) from textile waste
Felice Quartinello, Simona Vajnhandl, Julija Volmajer Valh, Thomas Farmer, Bojana Vončina, Aleksandra Lobnik, Enrique Herrero Acero, Alessandro Pellis, Georg M. Gübitz, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Due to the rising global environment protection awareness, recycling strategies that comply with the circular economy principles are needed. Polyesters are among the most used materials in the textile industry; therefore, achieving a complete poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) hydrolysis in an environmentally friendly way is a current challenge. In this work, a chemo-enzymatic treatment was developed to recover the PET building blocks, namely terephthalic acid (TA) and ethylene glycol. To monitor the monomer and oligomer content in solid samples, a Fourier-transformed Raman method was successfully developed. A shift of the free carboxylic groups (1632 cm$^{−1}$) of TA into the deprotonated state (1604 and 1398 cm$^{−1}$) was observed and bands at 1728 and 1398 cm$^{−1}$ were used to assess purity of TA after the chemo-enzymatic PET hydrolysis. The chemical treatment, performed under neutral conditions (T = 250 °C, P = 40 bar), led to conversion of PET into 85% TA and small oligomers. The latter were hydrolysed in a second step using the Humicola insolens cutinase (HiC) yielding 97% pure TA, therefore comparable with the commercial synthesis-grade TA (98%).
Keywords: textile waste, waste recycling
Published: 16.11.2017; Views: 806; Downloads: 269
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Challenges and advantages of recycling wrought aluminium alloys from lower grades of metallurgically clean scrap
Varužan Kevorkijan, 2013, review article

Abstract: In the recycling of wrought aluminium alloys from lower grades of scrap (metallurgically clean but highly contaminated with non-metallic impurities) the following two tasks were identified as the most demanding: (i) achieving the required final chemical composition of an alloy with a minimal addition of primary aluminium and alloying elements; and (ii) keeping the level of impurities (inclusions, hydrogen, trace elements and alkali metals) in the molten metal below the critical level. Because of the lack of chemically based refining processes for reducing the concentration of alloying and trace elements in the molten aluminium, once the concentrations of these constituents in the melt exceed the corresponding concentration limits, the only practical solution for their reduction would be an appropriate dilution with primary metal. To avoid such a costly correction, carefully predicting and ensuring the chemical composition of the batch in the pre-melting stage of casting should be applied. Fortunately, some of the impurities, like hydrogen and alkali metals, as well as various (mostly exogeneous) inclusions, could be successfully reduced by employing existing refining procedures. In this work, (i) the state-of-the-art technologies, including some emerging technical topics such as the evolution of wrought alloys toward scrap-intensive compositions, monitoring of the content of organics in the incoming scrap and the quality of molten metal achieved by different smelting and refining technologies, and (ii) the relevant economic advantages of the recycling of wrought aluminium alloys from the lower grades of scrap are reported. By analyzing the market prices of various grades of scrap and the total cost of their recycling, the cost of aluminium ingots made from recycled aluminium was modelled as a function of aluminium and the alloying-element content in the incoming scrap. Furthermore, scrap mixtures for producing aluminium wrought alloys of standard quality from lower grades of scrap and with a significant new added value were illustrated.
Keywords: wrought aluminium alloys, recycling, low grades of aluminium scrap, quality of recycled metal, economic benefits
Published: 21.12.2015; Views: 959; Downloads: 26
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Namen in uporaba mednarodne baze podatkov o materialih v avtomobilski industriji
Marko Sečnjak, Bojan Ačko, 2005, professional article

Abstract: Prispevek opisuje mednarodno bazo podatkov o materialih (MBPM - IMDS), vgrajenih v osebna vozila, ki je nastala na pobudo združenja nemskih proizvajalcev avtomobilov, z namenom obvladovanja zgradbe avtomobila z vidika okoljevarstvenih zahtev. Izhodisče zanjo so zakonska določila in prostovoljna odločitev avtomobilskih proizvajalcev, da bo mogoče čim večji delež avtomobilov reciklirati. V opisano bazo vnašajo proizvajalci surovin in sklopov podatke o kemični sestavi uporabljenih materialov, kar omogoča proizvajalcem avtomobilov učinkovito analizo njihove sestave. Ta analiza omogoča identifikacijo vgrajenih skodljivih snovi in njihov polozaj v izdelkih, kar proizvajalcem olajša definiranje popravnih ukrepov za zmanjšanje deleza le-teh. Opisan je primer vnosa podatkov v sistem, trenutno stanje uporabnosti in predvidevanja o nadaljnjem razvoju sistema. Analiza sistema je bila narejena v podjetju SG Automotive d.o.o., ki dobavlja elektronske sklope avtomobilski industriji, na primeru dvesto štirinajstih vnosov, ki jih je to podjetje dobilo od svojih dobaviteljev, in dvesto devetindvajsetih vnosov, ki jih je isto podjetje poslalo svojim kupcem. Poleg omenjene analize je bilo izvedeno se izobraževanje v petintridesetih slovenskih, enem avstrijskem in enem nemškem podjetju, ki uporabljajo to bazo na zahtevo svojih kupcev. Izkušnje za analizo so bile pridobljene na delovnih seminarjih v skupini Schefenacker, ki ima 40-odstotni delež v svetovni proizvodnji zunanjih ogledal za avtomobile.
Keywords: automobile industry, materials, IMDS, environmental engineering, recycling
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 700; Downloads: 24
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FP7 EU project AquaFit4Use - synergy of 4 industrial sectors with the goal of waste water recycling
Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, Simona Vajnhandl, Darko Golob, 2009, professional article

Abstract: Sustainable water use in industry is the goal of AquaFit4Use, by a cross-sectorial, integrated approach. The overall objectives are: the development and implementation of new, reliable, cost-effective technologies, tools and methods for sustainable water supply, use and discharge in the main water consuming industries in order to significantly reduce water use, mitigate environmental impact and produce and apply water qualities in accordance with industrial own specifications (fit - for - use) from all possible sources, and contributing to a far-going closure of the water cycle in a economical, sustainable and safe way while improving their product quality and process stability.
Keywords: waste water recycling, reduce water use, water quality, sustainable water supply
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1997; Downloads: 21
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