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1.
Safety, security, and crime prevention in rural areas of Krasnodarskyi Krai and the Republic of Adygea
Anton Petrovskiy, 2020, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The purpose of the article is to study crime and crime prevention in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea to make suggestions for how to enhance the public security system. Design/Methods/Approach: The following methods were applied to assess crime in the rural areas of the two Russian Southern regions for the period between 2015 and 2019: a statistical observation, and calculation of a crimes index analysis of law enforcement reports. Findings: In order to ensure public security of the population in rural areas it is necessary to decentralise the crime prevention system in Russia by transferring law enforcement powers to the municipal bodies, by creating municipal police and a system for the re-socialisation of former criminals. Research Limitations/Implications: Crime in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea depends on the impact of local factors. As a result, the reasons and conditions of similar crimes in the rural areas of Central Russia might differ. Practical Implications: The results could be used by the local authorities in planning crime prevention measures and enhancing crime prevention in the rural areas of the regions under study. Originality / Value: The article is the first study of the criminological characteristics of crime in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea since 2014, suggesting measures to boost crime prevention with regard to the contemporary socio-economic situation.
Ključne besede: public security, crime prevention, rural area, efficiency of police activity
Objavljeno: 04.01.2021; Ogledov: 87; Prenosov: 4
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2.
Supplementary material for paper Modeling compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines: the critical role of trust in science
Nejc Plohl, Bojan Musil, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The coronavirus pandemic is one of the biggest health crises of our time. In response to this global problem, various institutions around the world had soon issued evidence-based prevention guidelines. However, these guidelines, which were designed to slow the spread of COVID-19 and contribute to public well-being, are (deliberately) disregarded by some individuals. In the present study, we aimed to develop and test a multivariate model that could help us identify individual characteristics that make a person more/less likely to comply with COVID-19 prevention guidelines. A total of 525 attentive participants completed the online survey. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) show that COVID-19 risk perception and trust in science both independently predict compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, while the remaining variables in the model (political conservatism, religious orthodoxy, conspiracy ideation and intellectual curiosity) do so via the mediating role of trust in science. The described model exhibited an acceptable fit ([chi sup]2(1611) = 2485.84, [rho]<.001, CFI=.91, RMSEA=.032, SRMR=.055). These findings thus provide empirical support for the proposed multivariate model and underline the importance of trust in science in explaining the different levels of compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, covid-19, prevention guidelines, compliance, trust in science
Objavljeno: 10.11.2020; Ogledov: 228; Prenosov: 61
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3.
Modeling compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines
Nejc Plohl, Bojan Musil, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The coronavirus pandemic is one of the biggest health crises of our time. In response to this global problem, various institutions around the world had soon issued evidence-based prevention guidelines. However, these guidelines, which were designed to slow the spread of COVID-19 and contribute to public well-being, are (deliberately) disregarded by some individuals. In the present study, we aimed to develop and test a multivariate model that could help us identify individual characteristics that make a person more/less likely to comply with COVID-19 prevention guidelines. A total of 525 attentive participants completed the online survey. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) show that COVID-19 risk perception and trust in science both independently predict compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, while the remaining variables in the model (political conservatism, religious orthodoxy, conspiracy ideation and intellectual curiosity) do so via the mediating role of trust in science. The described model exhibited an acceptable fit (χ2(1611) = 2485.84, p < .001, CFI = .91, RMSEA = .032, SRMR = .055). These findings thus provide empirical support for the proposed multivariate model and underline the importance of trust in science in explaining the different levels of compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, covid-19, prevention guidelines, compliance, trust in science
Objavljeno: 09.11.2020; Ogledov: 202; Prenosov: 138
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,09 MB)
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4.
Adolescents as delinquent actors and as targets of preventive measures
Anabel Taefi, Thomas Görgen, Benjamin Kraus, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The article aims at examining the prevalence of deviance and delinquency in a sample of students, at explaining property and violent offending via risk factors and examining students’ experiences with and views on preventive approaches. Design/Methods/Approach: Data stem from a school survey conducted among 2186 13–17 year old male and female students, who attended school in an urban or a rural northwest area of Germany. The instrument was developed on the basis of the new ISRD-3 questionnaire and included newly developed questions on students’ experiences with and views on preventive actors and approaches. Descriptive as well as multivariate methods are applied. Findings: Deviance and delinquency were found to be widespread, but mostly of low severity. Different predictors for violent and property offending can be found. Groups of students with differential involvement in delinquency show clearly differentiated profiles with regard to risk factors. Evaluations of preventive actors and approaches are very similar across groups of students with differential delinquent involvement. Research Limitations / Implications: Special schools have been excluded from the sample. Generally, school surveys may fail at including high risk individuals, such as students who skip school. Practical Implications: Findings hint at the importance of including peers and family in preventive approaches. Originality/Value: Extension of a self-report study among youngsters as targets of prevention with questions on their experiences and evaluations of preventive approaches may give implications on differential receptiveness of young people for preventive approaches.
Ključne besede: self-reports, deviance and delinquency, prevention, youth violence, substance abuse
Objavljeno: 23.04.2020; Ogledov: 327; Prenosov: 12
.pdf Celotno besedilo (648,81 KB)

5.
Youth drug and crime prevention practices in Hungary as reflected in the opinions of students and professionals
Fruzsina Albert, Olga Tóth, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: In this article, we will try to compare how different actors view/experience current prevention practices of youth delinquency in Hungary. Design/Methods/Approach: We use both qualitative and quantitative data regarding the views of the professionals involved in working with young people and 14–17 year old students’ opinions on existing prevention programs on youth violence and delinquent behaviour and their perceived effectiveness. Findings: The repressive approach, although increasingly important, is not considered very effective. The educational system seems to be the best framework for prevention, but also community development should be important, as useful freetime activities and locations for such are widely missing. Central policy making efforts could be useful to introduce elements of crime prevention (in the broadest sense) in the school curricula. There is a significant difference between the opinion of students and professionals regarding the role of teachers in prevention activities. While experts consider that teachers should play an increased role in prevention in the future, young people are often quite sceptical about these actors. Originality/Value: A unique feature of this article is that it brings together and can reflect opinions of the actors involved in prevention.
Ključne besede: youth delinquency, crime prevention programs, efficiency, Hungary
Objavljeno: 23.04.2020; Ogledov: 261; Prenosov: 5
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6.
Giving voice to 'youth of today'
Anneke Evenepoel, Jenneke Christiaens, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The aim of this article is to present findings on a study into the field of prevention of youth crime and deviance in Belgium. This research took place within the framework of a European study YouPrev that involved six European countries. Design/Methods/Approach: On one hand, a school survey was conducted with youngsters aged between 14 and 17 years in three regions: an urban, a semi-rural/urban and a rural area. Based on the new ISRD-3, in addition to classic self-report questions, the instrument also focused on young people’s views and perceptions regarding practices and initiatives aimed at preventing youth delinquency. To enhance the richness of these results, group discussions and interviews with youngsters were organised in the same regions, addressing the same topic. Findings: The major finding was that the youngsters that participated in the study do not seem to be part of classical prevention target groups. They attach great importance to informal actors in controlling and preventing youth crime (while formal actors like police, social work and prevention services are the main professions involved in Belgium). When it comes to their possible deviant behaviour, the survey pointed out that the majority appear not to use alcohol and drugs in a problematic way, and they don’t seem to have much contact with police or other legal actors. Furthermore, the respondents have very limited experience with and knowledge about prevention activities in their area, not only about secondary and tertiary but also general prevention initiatives. This could imply that the ‘best’ prevention is the activity that is not brought forward and perceived as such, a new hypothesis that would be interesting for further research. Research Limitations / Implications: Conducting research in the field of prevention should move beyond the school and more into the field of prevention practices, from different epistemological perspectives. This implies that the actual target groups of these practices should be included and be given a voice. If we want to find out more about ‘best practices’ in the prevention of youth crime, it is essential to question the views and perspectives of youngsters who were actually involved in prevention projects. Practical Implications: To take into account the views of the target groups in the study of the field of youth crime prevention may open up new, and maybe very different, directions for policy and practice on how to approach and react to youth delinquency and deviance. In an European Study regarding the prevention of youth deviance and violence (“YouPrev: Youth deviance and youth violence: A European multi-agency perspective on best practices in prevention and control”), Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain have conducted surveys among 13 to 17 year old students. Based on the new ISRD-3 instrument, in addition to the classic selfreport questions, the survey also focused on their perceptions and views regarding practices and initiatives aimed at preventing youth delinquency. In this article, we will present the results collected in Belgium. The aim is to stimulate reflection and contribute to the international discussion regarding a very popular topic today by adding the perspective of the seemingly ‘unpopular’ key players.
Ključne besede: prevention, youth crime, young people’s perspective, Belgium
Objavljeno: 23.04.2020; Ogledov: 281; Prenosov: 10
.pdf Celotno besedilo (541,01 KB)
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7.
Prevention of juvenile crime and deviance
Thomas Görgen, Anneke Evenepoel, Benjamin Kraus, Anabel Taefi, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: This article analyses perspectives on youth crime prevention in samples of 13–17 year old students from 6 European countries and of practitioners/experts in Belgium and Germany. Design/Methods/Approach: Surveys were conducted among urban and rural school students (n = 10682). Expert and practitioner perspectives were taken into account using Delphi surveys, standardized surveys on the state of youth crime prevention, and semistructured interviews with practitioners in the areas where the school surveys were conducted. Findings: While the majority of students have been targeted by drug abuse prevention measures, rates for violence prevention are lower. Students ascribe moderate preventive potential to school and they regard peers and parents as most influential in prevention while professional agents are viewed as less important. Punitive approaches are not rejected, but approaches focusing on individual resources and problems are given priority. Experts point at the significance of socioeconomic factors related to the problem of (youth) delinquency and hence of social policy measures. They recommend prevention starting at an early age, strengthening social skills and following multi-professional approaches. Research Limitations / Implications: Schools surveys excluded special schools, and response rates in expert surveys were low or moderate. Practical Implications: Findings point to young persons’ understanding of factors influencing their behaviour and at connections between involvement in offending and accessibility for approaches to prevention. Expert surveys show needs for improvement in the field of prevention, especially in terms of funding, evaluation, and fundamental strategic approaches. Originality/Value: Perspectives of both actors and targets of preventive approaches are taken into account.
Ključne besede: prevention, juvenile delinquency, school survey, expert survey, drug abuse, violence
Objavljeno: 23.04.2020; Ogledov: 277; Prenosov: 15
.pdf Celotno besedilo (528,16 KB)
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8.
Juvenile delinquency school failure and dropout in Portugal
Ana Cardoso, Heloísa Perista, Paula Carrilho, Mário Jorge Silva, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address and discuss the relationship between different school paths and self-reported young students’ behaviours and perceptions regarding violence and delinquency. Their views on prevention deserve particular attention. This is though a picture drafted in different voices, since young students’ opinions contrast with those of several other actors in the domain of juvenile delinquency. Design/Methods/Approach: This analysis is based on the YouPrev project findings in Portugal, generated by the different empirical data collection instruments employed, thus combining a quantitative and a qualitative approach. Gender differences as well as differences between urban and rural regions are highlighted whenever relevant. Findings: School failure and dropout is a structural problem in Portugal and some expert views anticipate a reversal in recent trends and a new rise of these phenomena as a result of the current crisis. The YouPrev school survey outcomes in Portugal confirm that young people with negative school integration have a higher life-time prevalence of self-reported delinquency. Among the 1,755 young students surveyed, 29.4% reported they had committed, over their life-time, at least one of the offences listed in the questionnaire. 156 of these students reported that they had committed a violent offence during the last twelve months. Among these, 46 may be described as frequent violent offenders. The concentration of risk factors among the frequent violent offenders shows that these are also victims of other forms of violence in the context where they live in. Young people share the idea that “what works” best in the prevention of juvenile delinquency is to improve their prospects to get a job and to provide them a good general education. Both in the rural and in the urban regions the relationship between young people and the family is seen as crucial either by experts or by the young boys and girls. Research Limitations / Implications: Self-reported delinquency surveys attempt to overcome insufficiencies of the official statistics – these surveys open the possibility to obtain more diverse information and to identify delinquent practices that are not registered. But one of the possible criticisms is that, in these kinds of studies, chronic and persistent delinquents are not represented. In this particular analysis, information is missing for those students who skip school and those whose parents, for different reasons, did not give consent to their participation in the survey. The conduction of expert face-to-face interviews complemented the prospective information collected by the Delphi study, compensating and enriching the relative low number of responses to the survey. Practical Implications: The outcomes promote the awareness-raising on juvenile delinquency and prevention strategies among different actors: experts, schools, and young students. These can also be used as training material for professionals, working in social services and police forces, in particular. Originality/Value: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the practices and views within the domain of juvenile delinquency and violence. This is a research topic insufficiently explored in Portugal, at least in a comprehensive way, either in terms of subjects or territorial coverage. It also adds to existing research with crossed views, based on a multi-method approach, on the interplay between school failure and dropout and juvenile delinquency and prevention.
Ključne besede: juvenile delinquency, violence, prevention, school failure, Portugal
Objavljeno: 20.04.2020; Ogledov: 246; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (614,36 KB)
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9.
Assessing the preventive anti-corruption efforts in Slovenia
Jasna Fedran, Bojan Dobovšek, Brane Ažman, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: Corruption is one of the greatest and most serious social problems our country faces today. Slovenia was found to be burdened with systemic or structural corruption; therefore, one of its priority efforts should be establishing a more effective national structure and taking the most appropriate systemic anti-corruption measures. According to the fact that the previous repressive reactions against corruption have proven ineffective, it is necessary to pursue the objective of its anti-corruption measures aimed at its prevention. One of the major measures is the integrity plan, representing a successful breakthrough in the area of prevention of corruption, as Slovenia is the first in the European Union to have implemented it. Consequently, a research on integrity plans was conducted. The purpose of the article is to highlight or emphasize the meaning of the topical preventive measure in curbing corruption in Slovenia from the perspective of public sector institutions which are obliged to elaborate the integrity plan. Design/Methods/Approach: This contribution is based on methods specific to qualitative research, particularly comparative and descriptive ones. Further, the methods of analysis and examination of relevant domestic and foreign primary and secondary resources and legal acts are used. As a data collection technique, the authors take interviews with integrity plan planners and producers. Findings: With regard to the issue at hand, aversion or unwillingness of integrity plan producers to participate in our research was found, generally. However, the detailed results of the research not only show that the current concept of integrity plan should be partially upgraded, but they also reveal that only few leading employees participate in elaborating their integrity plan. Originality/Value: An issue arising from the paper reflects the exceptional endeavor to establish a stable prevention national policy.
Ključne besede: integrity, integrity plan, integrity plan producers, corruption, prevention of corruption, Commission for the Prevention of Corruption, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 16.04.2020; Ogledov: 189; Prenosov: 13
.pdf Celotno besedilo (346,71 KB)
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10.
Webinar “Tools supporting academic integrity”
Július Kravjar, Milan Ojsteršek, Oliver Trevisiol, raziskovalni ali dokumentarni film, zvočna ali video publikacija

Opis: Webinar “Tools supporting academic integrity” with presentations on: Experiences in Establishing National Plagiarism Detection Systems Academic Integrity and Plagiarism on Slovenian Academic Institutions (Ojsteršek Milan) The Slovenian open access infrastructure consists of Slovenian universities repositories, a repository for research organisations, a repository for standalone faculties and a national portal (http://openscience.si/) that aggregates content from the repositories and other Slovenian archives (dLib.si, videolectures.NET, digital library of Ministry of Defence, Social Science data archive, ScieVie repository…). The national portal provides a common search engine, recommendation of similar publications, and similar text detection. During the setting up of the national open access infrastructure, the rules and processes for mandatory submissions of electronic theses, dissertations, research publications and research data were defined. One of the features is the use of software for plagiarism detection during the process of submitting electronic theses, dissertations and research publications. Technical characteristics of the plagiarism detection system used in the Slovenian national open access infrastructure will be presented. We will also describe established processes for awareness, prevention and detection of plagiarised documents. Finally, we will present chronologically organised data about the similarity of documents from the test corpus of documents, published on the internet after the year 2000. Nationwide Barrier to Plagiarism is Bearing Fruit (Kravjar Július) Plagiarism is a phenomenon that existed in the past, exists today and will exist in the future. Slovakia with its population of 5.4 million is confronted with plagiarism like other countries. The dynamics of changes in higher education, in ICT and internet penetration while at the same time a low level of ethics, copyright and intellectual property rights awareness in our country, contributed to the spread of plagiarism – an unwanted kind of “creativity“ after the year of revolutionary changes (1989). And there was an inherent lack of systemic action to create a barrier for future growth of plagiarism. The absence of a broader discussion of academic ethics (AE) had its consequences: the members of the academic community and the general public do not fully understood the importance of AE, hence they were less sensitive to the violations of AE. There were 13 higher education institutions (HEIs) in Slovakia in 1989, the number has now grown to 39, the number of students increased from 63 thousand to about a quarter of million and the teaching staff growth was insignificant. In 2008 MinEdu decided to acquire a plagiarism detection system (PDS) and create a central repository of theses and dissertations (CR) for all Slovak HEIs. It was the milestone for the nationwide CR and for PDS – both systems are known under the name SK ANTIPLAG. The preparation of the legislative environment (the amendment to the Higher Education Act, 2009) represented the fundamental prerequisite for the breakthrough in the fight against plagiarism and created an important step towards the implementation of the CR and PDS. The use of SK ANTIPLAG has been mandatory for all Slovak HEIs operating under Slovak legislation since April 2010. It is an example of an unparalleled and unprecedented implementation of such a system on a national level on a worldwide scale. Educational Resources for Plagiarism Prevention. Practical Work with Examples (Trevisiol Oliver) The participants will get to know, test, and review educational resources for plagiarism prevention. Examples are: - Exercises and tasks for courses (How, with which methods and conceptual formulation can I teach students about referencing and good scientific practice?); - Reviewed educational videos (Which video may I use in class?); - Examples of myths and rumours about plagiarism (Which questions and perception do students have? How can I react to typical notions and answer frequent questions?), such as the strange rule of “you need to cite more than 3 words in a row”.
Ključne besede: plagiarism, open access, text matching software, plagiarism prevention, educational resources
Objavljeno: 16.10.2019; Ogledov: 471; Prenosov: 8
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