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1.
Private policing in the former Yugoslavia
Ronald van Steden, Rick Sarre, 2010, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: This paper aims to give an empirical overview of the ‘privatization’ of security (or, in a more narrow sense, policing) services within the former countries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia namely, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro. Observations are put in light of the extant literature on private policing worldwide. Design/Methods/Approach: The paper draws on a literature review of academic publications, NGO-reports and other relevant written sources. Findings: Although it is not possible to offer a full picture of the current developments in the region, we argue that the rise of private security markets shows significant variety throughout former Yugoslavian countries, as does the level of state regulation. Moreover, contrary to the views of doomsayers critical of the provision of commercial security, academics and observers alike are optimistic about private security personnel becoming a legitimate and stabilizing presence in post-conflict zones such as the Balkans. Research implications: The persistence of divergence in private policing trajectories within the former Yugoslavia underscores the need for more detailed cross-national studies that take account of differences, as well as similarities, in how commercial security industries are governed and regulated by state institutions. Practical implications: Public as well as private policy-makers in the field of security serve as appropriate anchor points to facilitate, direct and regulate private policing activities across the former Yugoslav republics. Originality/Value: The growing body of knowledge on private policing is heavily suffused by predominantly North American, Canadian, British and Australian studies. Nonetheless, research from countries outside the English speaking world has much to contribute to an understanding of private security industries. An examination of the Balkan countries that emerged from the breakup of Yugoslavia is particularly interesting when viewed as a post-conflict legacy.
Ključne besede: policing, private security, ex-Yugoslavia, cross-national comparison
Objavljeno: 12.05.2020; Ogledov: 435; Prenosov: 14
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2.
Public and private policing of financial crimes
Michael Levi, 2010, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The purpose of doing this is to move our attention, both theoretically and empirically, away from looking solely at the police as deliverers of “policing” and more in the direction of the web of police, non-police agencies (like financial regulators and departmental investigators in the UK), global and local private interveners (like payment card systems, banks, and insurance companies). Design/Methods/Approach: Interviews with high officials and operational public and private sector personnel, principally in the UK but also in continental Europe, North America and Australasia. Findings: This paper deals with the evolving shape of the control of financial crimes, especially frauds. Most policing activity in the area of UK public sector fraud is undertaken not by the police but by departmental investigators; most frauds against business come to the attention of the police via corporate actors; while frauds against the public may be reported direct, or via intermediaries like credit card issuers. It is difficult for public sector bodies to escape their narrow departmental orientations in developing “joint working” in public-public partnerships. Publicprivate partnerships have been developing rapidly in dealing with volume frauds such as payment card and insurance frauds, but less rapidly in more elite whitecollar crime areas such as management fraud, which are less predictable and where elites resist accountability. Practical implications: It is misconceived to look only at public police activity when assessing the scope and impact of fraud control. The research shows that considerable efforts are made by the police and different parts of the public and the private sector in the UK to harmonise intelligence, but scarcity of investigative resources means that both the private and public sectors are frustrated in getting action on their intelligence product.
Ključne besede: fraud, white-collar crime, economic crime, public-private partnerships, policing
Objavljeno: 12.05.2020; Ogledov: 262; Prenosov: 17
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3.
Analysis of the relationship between smart cities, policing and criminal investigation
Kaja Prislan, Boštjan Slak, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The main objective is to present the symbiosis between smart cities, policing, criminal investigation and criminal intelligence. Moreover, another purpose is to critically address the underlying privacy concerns arising from smart city designs. Design/Methods/Approach: The paper is theoretical in scope and utilises a literature review as the basic method. Correlations between smart cities, policing and criminal investigations are identified by analysing the applicability of core smart city technologies and services [SCTS]. Findings: It is evident that SCTS can influence policing styles and police effectiveness. SCTS hold great potential for criminal investigations and criminal intelligence as they provide information upon which police can develop investigations or crime-control strategies. Vice-versa, criminal investigations and criminal intelligence can provide guidelines for SCTS developers and the governance of smart cities. However, privacy concerns and the slowly developing regulatory framework remain the biggest issues when it comes to SCTS adoption, thus making measures to safeguard privacy a key factor for the legitimacy of smart cities and smart policing. Practical Implications: The paper introduces practical knowledge about the implications of smart cities for policing and crime investigation. Some research ideas are presented as well as suggestions for legislators, developers and others whose work area falls in the scope of (smart) city governance. Originality/Value: A comprehensive study of the symbiosis between smart cities and policing must not only consider the potential of SCTS but the related need to develop regulation and skillsets of human resources. Only a handful of papers address the connectivity of smart cities, criminal investigations and criminal intelligence from such a multidisciplinary scope. Therefore, the paper represents a contribution to works discussing these concepts.
Ključne besede: smart cities, safety and security provision, policing, criminal investigation, criminal intelligence
Objavljeno: 20.04.2020; Ogledov: 383; Prenosov: 30
.pdf Celotno besedilo (611,90 KB)
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4.
Local governments as providers of public order
Ero Liivik, 2017, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: This paper deals with the legal regulation of Estonia’s public order from the aspect of local governments. The purpose of the article is to analyse relevant Estonian legislation to help identify problems and make suggestions for improvement. Proposals are intended for the institutions involved in developing legislation in Estonia. Local governments in the country act according to the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia (1992), but still retain enough legal autonomy to decide on local affairs independently of the state government. Methods: The paper is based on an analysis of national legislation. In the legal research, the author pays attention to written sources of law, e.g. the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia (1992), and subsequent legal acts regulating public order. Findings: The main task of local government is to provide public services and improve the quality of the living environment. In Estonia, the principal provider of internal security is the Police and Border Guard Board. It is the responsibility of local government to assist the national structures in fulfilling their duties. On the other hand, the municipalities are required to ensure public order within their territories. The legal power given by parliament to local governments to carry out such activities is insufficient to ensure the law is enforced. Practical Implications: The findings in this paper highlight areas in which the legal regulation could be improved. Originality/Value: Although the legal basis for Estonian municipalities’ operations has been studied carefully, it is necessary to examine issues concerning the links between local governments and public order in detail. The continually changing legislation makes the situation complex to handle. It also provides an opportunity for international comparative analysis with other European Union member states.
Ključne besede: local government, internal security, public order, policing, Estonia
Objavljeno: 15.04.2020; Ogledov: 493; Prenosov: 16
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5.
Water crimes and policing
Katja Eman, Saša Kuhar, Gorazd Meško, 2017, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: Water is a crucial natural resource for the survival of the human and various other species. As a result, water is becoming more and more attractive to various economic and criminal groups. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present crimes against water, the types of water crimes, an analysis of the situation in Slovenia and the police measures in the field of water security. Methods: The water crimes phenomenon was analysed by applying a descriptive method, literature review, statistical data analysis and information received from the police. Findings: Water crimes are an emerging global issue. Water crimes include diverse types of crimes ranging from the pilfering of water from pipelines, illegal waste management, water theft, river and marine pollution, manipulation of sampling methods to avoid treatment costs, fraud and illegal trafficking of water, terrorism and cyber-attacks on water management operations, illegal waste discharges from factories, and unauthorised consumption from the water network. Water crimes are hard to detect, investigate, prosecute and study. It is necessary for law enforcement officers to have knowledge related to water crimes – from natural and social sciences to other knowledge such as biology and chemistry. Further, they must have well-organised coordination and cooperation with other formal social control entities like inspectorates, institutes etc. Originality/Value: The paper presents water crime issues and makes an important contribution to the professional and general public with respect to the prevention and formal social control of water crime.
Ključne besede: water, water crime, environmental crime, police, policing
Objavljeno: 15.04.2020; Ogledov: 358; Prenosov: 23
.pdf Celotno besedilo (748,05 KB)
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6.
Police officers' and citizens' attitudes toward the provision of safety/security in local communities in Slovenia : doctoral dissertation
Maja Modic, 2013, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Main purpose of the dissertation is to compare police officers’ and citizens’ attitudes toward various aspects of local safety provision, with the emphasis on community policing, which is currently the main philosophy of policing in Slovenia. Data for the study comes from a survey administred to a sample of police officers and citizens to assess their attitudes on a broad range of issues regarding the provision of safety on the local level as related to Slovene police in general, police effectiveness in various activities, legality of police work and citizens’ willingness to cooperate with the police among others. Within the comparison between citizens’ and police officers’ attitudes, areas of the highest and the lowest degree of concordance between attitudes were identified and examined. Attitudes of police officers and citizens were found to be most dissimilar regarding legality of police work, effectiveness in protecting life, personal safety and property, general perceptions of police and effectiveness in community policing. Overall level of concordance between attitudes of both groups was found to be low. The foci of our further analysis were the factors which influence citizens’ and police officers’ attitudes toward police effectiveness in community policing. Effects of gender, age, education, fear of crime and residency characteristics on citizens’ attitudes were examined, and effects of age, education, participatory management, organizational support, job satisfaction and community support on police officers’ attitudes were examined. Results of regression analysis showed that police visibility, trust in the government, age, fear of crime and length of residency affect citizens’ attitudes toward police effectiveness in community policing, however these variables account only for 30.1 percent of the variation in citizens' attitudes toward community policing. Police officers’ attitudes toward police effectiveness in community policing are affected by age, education, organizational support, job satisfaction and community support. These variables were found to account only for 28.7 percent of the variation in police officers' attitudes toward community policing. Majority of the variation in both groups’ attitudes toward community policing thus remains unexplained. Suggestions for further research and policy implication are provided, focused on inclusion of additional variables into model of police officers’ attitudes and model of citizens’ attitudes. Variables found to affect citizens of both groups toward police effectiveness in community policing by the findings of present research should be taken into consideration by police administrators and local safety policy makers.
Ključne besede: police officers’ attitudes, citizens’ attitudes, local safety provision, community policing, police-community relations, police-community cooperation, community policing officer, local safety council
Objavljeno: 15.04.2013; Ogledov: 2421; Prenosov: 238
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,42 MB)

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