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1.
The importance and effectiveness assessment of internal control in the Slovenian police
Branko Lobnikar, Kiara Ropoša, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The paper presents the findings of a study conducted on a sample of internal control providers within the Slovenian police as part of the target research project "Effectiveness of Systemic Control of the Police in Regard to Human Rights as well as the Statutory and Professional Standards of Police Work (V5-1942)". The purpose of the study was to analyse the control activity in the Slovenian police from the viewpoint of those carrying out control procedures. We were interested in their view of the control process and, through the interviews, we analysed the opportunities and shortcomings of the control activity within the Slovenian police in relation to systemic control conducted by external stakeholders. Design/Methods/Approach: We examined the regulatory framework of control activities in the public sector and in the police and presented the approaches used across Europe. In the empirical part, we conducted structured interviews with employees at the state level, namely with the employees tasked with carrying out control procedures in the General Police Directorate, the Criminal Police Directorate and the Uniformed Police Directorate, and we also conducted interviews with two superintendents at the Police Directorate level. We conducted a total of seven interviews. Findings: The research found that audits, whether carried out by the Ministry of the Interior or by the Police auditors, are seen as a vital element of the management of a police organization. The interview subjects emphasized the role of the heads of police units - both from the point of view of planning internal control activities and translating the findings of the audits into police practice. The dissemination of audit findings can be ensured through the digitization of police work processes; interviewees expressed the need for a systematic solution that would allow them to test the competencies of police officers. Research Limitations/Implications: The article presents the findings from the point of view of the employees responsible for carrying out control activities within the Slovenian police. For a more complete overview of the matter, our findings should be compared with the perspective of those who are the subjects of the control activities, i.e. the police officers who have undergone the control process. The findings of the research are useful primarily for the purposes of planning the processes related to the management and administration of police work and from the point of view of improving the quality of police work. Originality/Value: The paper examines how the employees responsible for carrying out the control activities perceive their own work and how the processes involved in the control of police work are organized, how they function and how effective they are.
Ključne besede: audit, internal control, police, police powers, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 11.06.2021; Ogledov: 83; Prenosov: 1
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

2.
Systemic direction and supervision of police work in the Republic of Slovenia
Maja Modic, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of the target research project "Effectiveness of Systemic Supervision of the Police in Regard to Human Rights as well as the Statutory and Professional Standards of Police Work (V5-1942)". We focused on the implementation of systemic supervision of police work, more precisely, on the operations of the Division for System Guidelines and Supervision of the Police, which operates within the Police and Security Directorate. Design/Methods/Approach: We examined how systemic supervisory activity of the work of the police is regulated by Slovenian law, limiting ourselves to the work of the Division for System Guidelines and Supervision of the Police. Based on the findings and an additional review of anonymised supervision reports, we prepared a questionnaire and conducted a structured written interview as well as oral interviews with the Division's employees. Findings: Systemic supervision efforts are contributing significantly to the quality of policing, but challenges and opportunities for improvement still remain. One of the main challenges is keeping police officers informed about supervision reports and effectively implementing inspection findings. Research Limitations/Implication: In the part of the study described, we focus exclusively on the work of the Division for System Guidelines and Supervision of the Police and take a look at systemic supervision activities solely from the Division's point of view. For a more complete overview of the matter, our findings should be compared with the perspective of those being supervised, i.e. the police officers who have undergone supervision. Originality/Value: The main added value of the paper is that it examines how supervisors perceive their own work and the organisation, operation and effectiveness of systemic supervisions of police work.
Ključne besede: systemic supervision of police work, Division for System Guidelines and Supervision of the Police, Police and Security Directorate, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 11.06.2021; Ogledov: 80; Prenosov: 2
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

3.
Complaints against the Slovenian police
Benjamin Flander, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The paper focuses on the problem of independence and impartiality of the complaints procedure against police work in Slovenia. Relying on the findings of the targeted research project, we address and examine the concerns regarding the adequacy of the current format and indicate the possibilities for legislative changes and reform. Design/Methods/Approach: We carried out an analysis of the legal regulation of the complaints procedure regarding the work of police officers and the results of previous research in the field. Based on the findings, we conducted a structured interview with a general questionnaire in written form and oral interviews with the people who perform the complaints procedures. Findings: The current regulation of complaints has advantages and disadvantages. According to the interviewees and in line with a wider professional consensus, complaints procedures should in future be carried out outside the Ministry of the Interior ("the Ministry") and the police. This would mean that complaints procedures would gain what they lack at present, namely the appearance of impartiality and formal/institutional independence. Research Limitations/Implications: In our research, we interviewed employees of the Ministry and representatives of the public who are involved in proceedings before the complaints panels of the Ministry. In future research, other participants (e.g. the complainants and police officers) should also be interviewed for a more comprehensive view of the issue. Originality/Value: We examined the views of the employees of the Ministry who carry out complaints procedures in order to establish the validity of concerns regarding the adequacy of current regulation and we indicated the possibilities for reform of the current procedures.
Ključne besede: complaints against police work, procedure, independence, impartiality, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 11.06.2021; Ogledov: 54; Prenosov: 2
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

4.
Case studies of independent audits of police financial operations by the Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia
Bojan Tičar, Jona Koren Fric, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: This paper presents an overview of audit-case studies of the Slovenian Court of Audit where the audit subjects were Police financial operations. In relation to other state authorities, the Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia is an autonomous and independent state authority that supervises the use of public funds. The Court of Audit supervises all bodies and authorities in Slovenia that are users of public funds, including the Police. Design/Methods/Approach: Research design of this paper is the set of three research methods used in collecting data and analysing findings. First method is descriptive analysis of legal regulations. Second research method is case-study analysis. Third research method is observational study based on direct interview. Synthesis is presented in the conclusions. Findings: The Court of Audit reviews the credibility of the response report of auditee after audit. If the Court of Audit assesses that the remedial actions were not satisfactory and that the user of public funds violated the obligation to ensure operational efficiency, the Court of Audit may issue a call for remedial action and serve such on the competent authority, which can take measures against the auditee. As the Police are a direct user of public funds, the Court of Audit has the power to carry out an audit of the operations of the Police based on the law. The Police as whole have never been the subject of a regularity or performance audit by the Court of Audit. Research Limitations / Implications: We have limited analysed in details only those cases where police units were subjects of audit performed by Slovenian Court of Audit. Originality/Value: The Police have been the subject of three audits in time from beginning of Court of Audit operations and today. These cases are presented in the quality analysis. Based on this quality analysis, authors have also addressed some questions directly to the Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia, i.e., in the form of a directed interview. The questions concerned external audits of Police operations by the Court of Audit and an assessment of the cooperation of the Court of Audit with the Police. Our research results are presented in the end of this article. In conclusion, the standpoints of the Court of Audit in fact support our previous findings presented in this paper.
Ključne besede: Slovenian Police, Slovenian Court of Audit, mandatory audits, regularity audits, performance audits, legal regulation of the Court of Audit
Objavljeno: 11.06.2021; Ogledov: 59; Prenosov: 1
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

5.
Collaboration between investigation and crisis intervention for the investigative interview in suicide attempts
Burak M. Gönültaş, Cristin Sauter, Meral Öztürk, Murat Yildiz, 2020, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The present study aims to understand whether investigation and crisis intervention processes can be coupled together in suicide attempt cases in order to mitigate secondary victimisation and whether a social worker as an interventionist can accomplish this. Design/Methods/Approach: This study relies on a literature review with the help of various databases, including PubMed, Springer Database, PsycoINFO and official national and international websites. In this study, the keywords (suicide, crisis intervention, investigation, social work, social worker) were determined for screening according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Findings: We found 38 articles, 8 of which were categorised by the research team in several groups with a level of 92% agreement. We categorised them using the mentioned keywords and four groups emerged as a result: suicide and crisis intervention, crisis intervention and social workers, suicide and investigation, investigation and social work. Overviews of papers for each group are presented. Practical Implications: Investigative interviews and crisis intervention processes may be coupled together in cases of suicide attempts. This process holds the potential to increase the rigour and effectiveness of data collection for the case, allow experts to lend their knowledge and skills in support of each other, and provide opportunities for more comprehensive problem-solving in crises. Thus, according to the literature and practice, the output of the current study appears to be implementable. Originality/Value: The conceptual framework revealed in this study may be used as a valuable source for future studies on the topic of collaboration occurring between the investigation on one side and social and psychological crisis intervention services on the other.
Ključne besede: suicide, crisis intervention, police, investigative interviewing, social worker
Objavljeno: 04.01.2021; Ogledov: 138; Prenosov: 4
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo
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6.
Safety, security, and crime prevention in rural areas of Krasnodarskyi Krai and the Republic of Adygea
Anton Petrovskiy, 2020, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The purpose of the article is to study crime and crime prevention in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea to make suggestions for how to enhance the public security system. Design/Methods/Approach: The following methods were applied to assess crime in the rural areas of the two Russian Southern regions for the period between 2015 and 2019: a statistical observation, and calculation of a crimes index analysis of law enforcement reports. Findings: In order to ensure public security of the population in rural areas it is necessary to decentralise the crime prevention system in Russia by transferring law enforcement powers to the municipal bodies, by creating municipal police and a system for the re-socialisation of former criminals. Research Limitations/Implications: Crime in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea depends on the impact of local factors. As a result, the reasons and conditions of similar crimes in the rural areas of Central Russia might differ. Practical Implications: The results could be used by the local authorities in planning crime prevention measures and enhancing crime prevention in the rural areas of the regions under study. Originality / Value: The article is the first study of the criminological characteristics of crime in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea since 2014, suggesting measures to boost crime prevention with regard to the contemporary socio-economic situation.
Ključne besede: public security, crime prevention, rural area, efficiency of police activity
Objavljeno: 04.01.2021; Ogledov: 117; Prenosov: 4
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo
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7.
How do Croatian police officers perceive certain characteristics of police management?
Ksenija Butorac, Ante Orlović, Mislav Stjepan Žebec, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: To explore the importance and existence of Croatian police managers’ relevant characteristics from the perspective of police officers, and in relation to several police officers’ demographic and professional characteristics. Design/Methods/Approach: A convenience sample of 132 Croatian police officers (104 males) who attended a study programme in criminal investigation (average age 31.5 years) was examined by means of a questionnaire that – within Katz’s skill theory of successful management – assesses the perceived importance and the perceived existence of technical/expert, social and strategic knowledge/skills, as well as the most representative characteristics of current police managers. Findings: A dominant perception of the highest level of importance for all three categories of managerial knowledge/skills was detected, while possession of the said skills was mainly assessed to be at the medium level. The largest difference was found between the perceived importance and the perceived possession of social skills. Social skills were also perceived to be significantly more important than the other ones, while police managers were perceived to most frequently possess expert skills. Out of 12 offered police manager characteristics, the most frequently selected were negative ones. Finally, there were no significant and systematic effects of demographic and professional factors on the perceived importance and perceived possession of any of the three knowledge/skills categories. Research Limitations / Implications: A larger and more representative sample would ensure the study’s greater external validity and statistical power. Additional management skill items are needed in the questionnaire to improve the construct validity (besides including other relevant factors and questions useful for interpreting the trends detected). Practical Implications: Within the research limitations, the findings suggest possible changes to the education system, staff assessment and police officers’ promotion. Originality/Value: This is the first police management research in Croatia and probably the first generally within the framework of Katz’s skill theory of successful management.
Ključne besede: police officers, perception, police management, categories of knowledge or skills
Objavljeno: 16.05.2020; Ogledov: 308; Prenosov: 16
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo
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8.
The perceived value of college education and experience to police work in Slovenia
Jason Rydberg, Mahesh Nalla, Gorazd Meško, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: This paper examines the distribution of officer demographic characteristics on dispositions across the perceived value of both college education and experience to police work in the post-independent Slovenia. Design/Methods/Approach: Using the responses of 995 Slovenian police officers, the present analysis utilizes bivariate tests of significance to examine how characteristics such as education level, experience, and occupational role are related to the perceived value of college education and experience to police work. Findings: Overall, the officers in the sample perceived experience to be far more beneficial to their work than college education. In terms of specific officer characteristics, college educated officers and female officers perceived college education to be beneficial to their work, relative to high school educated, male colleagues. In terms of experience, less experienced officers, younger officers, and those with lower salaries perceived experience to be more beneficial than their more experienced, older, well-compensated counterparts. There were also differences among occupational groups, with patrol officers finding experience more beneficial. Research limitations/implications: Given that the data were not drawn from a study specifically focused on the perceived benefits of education or experience, the dependent measures could be improved. Originality/Value: Though much research in the United States has sought to examine the effect of gaining a college education on police attitudes and behaviors, little research has examined the extent to which police officers themselves perceive college education and experience to be beneficial to their work, particularly in Eastern Europe.
Ključne besede: Slovenia Police, college education, experience, police attitudes
Objavljeno: 12.05.2020; Ogledov: 352; Prenosov: 7
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo
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9.
Transformational leadership styles in Slovenian Police
Džemal Durić, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine leadership styles among managers at different organizational levels in Slovenian Police organization and to examine relationships between leadership styles and outcomes criteria (effectiveness, satisfaction, and extra effort). Design/Methods/Approach: The study took a quantitative approach to test the Full Range Leadership Model (FRLM) with Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). Survey included police managers at local (290), regional (122), and state (74) level of Slovenian Police organization. Findings: There are more transformational leadership styles than transactional leadership styles and laissez-faire leadership styles demonstrated among Slovenian Police managers. Transformational leadership styles are expressed especially at higher organizational levels. Relationship between transformational leadership and outcomes criteria is stronger than relationship between transactional leadership and outcomes criteria. There is negative relationship between laissez-faire leadership styles and outcome criteria. Research limitations: The results are comparable with similar studies which used MLQ for self rating or measuring self perceptions of leadership styles. Future research should include subordinate’s perception of police manager’s leadership styles. That would reflect more realistic picture about leadership practice and performance. Practical implications: Results indicate which leadership styles have positive relationships with outcome criteria and can be a useful input for police leadership training and development process. Originality/Value: This study contributes to the Police Leadership literature. Paper extends understanding of leadership styles in police organizations and supports the propositions of the Full Range Leadership Model that transformational leadership extends the results of transactional leadership toward results beyond expectations.
Ključne besede: police, police hierarchy, leadership, Full Range Leadership Model, transformational leadership style, organizational levels, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 05.05.2020; Ogledov: 357; Prenosov: 29
URL Povezava na datoteko
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10.
The psychodynamic processes related to the involvement in peacekeeping missions
Branko Lobnikar, Špela Vesel, Emanuel Banutai, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the decade of Slovenian police officer’s experiences with international peacekeeping operations. The main goal of police officers, involved in these missions, is to prevent conflicts between opposite sites, to implement basic agreements, protect humanitarian missions and reinforce policing operations in the conflict area. The purpose of the paper is to acknowledge the lessons learned while planning and implementing further cooperation of Slovenian police officers in peacekeeping (police) operations. The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the consequences of deployment to peacekeeping missions for police officers as well as their family members (partners and children) by analyzing the psychodynamic processes related to the involvement in peacekeeping missions. Design/Methods/Approach: The paper is based on the review of literature. The empirical part of the paper presents the results of the research on a small sample of police officers (n = 36) and their family members (n = 25 partners + 35 children). Findings: Police peacekeepers should be well prepared for different stress situations; they are exposed to various stress factors before, during, and after serving in a mission. That is why training and reintegration programmes are of great importance. We establish that respondents assess that deployment to a peacekeeping mission has a positive and negative impact on the relationships between family members. As many as ¾ of mission members believe deployment can have a positive impact above all in the sense of strengthening the emotional ties between partners, increased mutual trust and strengthening of the partnership. For them, deployment to a peacekeeping mission is a challenge and personal experience, which can change the way they see the world. 2/3 of partners state similar positive impacts and they also believe that there is more trust between the partners after the experience with the peacekeeping mission, they treasure their time together and thus represent bigger support for each other in difficult times. As the most common problem, respondents perceived marital problems and the occurrence of negative feelings among family members (anger, avoidance, judgment ...). A large share of respondents stressed problems with children. 43.8% of respondents also named depression as a problem. Research limitations/implications: The findings are limited to the Slovenian police and their police officer’s experiences, serving in various police peacekeeping missions and their family members. Practical implications: Based on lessons learned this paper complements the results of different surveys of the researched topic. The results cannot be completely generalized, although some findings could also be useful to similar police organizations in Europe. Originality/Value: This paper addresses and explores different small scale surveys, conducted on sampled Slovenian police officers who served in peacekeeping missions and their family members. Findings could be of interest for the general as well as expert audience.
Ključne besede: police, police officer’s family, peacekeeping missions, Slovenia, stress, training and reintegration programmes, SE Europe
Objavljeno: 05.05.2020; Ogledov: 327; Prenosov: 14
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