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1.
Numerical simulations of the flow and aerosol dispersion in a violent expiratory event : Outcomes of the “2022 International Computational Fluid Dynamics Challenge on violent expiratory events
Jordi Pallares, Alexandre Fabregat Tomas, Akim Lavrinenko, Hadifathul Akmal bin Norshamsudin, Gabor Janiga, David Frederick Fletcher, Kiao Inthavong, Marina Zasimova, Vladimir Ris, Nikolay Ivanov, Robert Castilla, Pedro Javier Gamez-Montero, Gustavo Raush, Hadrien Calmet, Daniel Mira, Jana Wedel, Mitja Štrakl, Jure Ravnik, Douglas Hector Fontes, Francisco José De Souza, Cristian Marchioli, Salvatore Cito, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents and discusses the results of the “2022 International Computational Fluid Dynamics Challenge on violent expiratory events” aimed at assessing the ability of different computational codes and turbulence models to reproduce the flow generated by a rapid prototypical exhalation and the dispersion of the aerosol cloud it produces. Given a common flow configuration, a total of 7 research teams from different countries have performed a total of 11 numerical simulations of the flow dispersion by solving the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) or using the Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) or hybrid (URANS-LES) techniques. The results of each team have been compared with each other and assessed against a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the exact same flow. The DNS results are used as reference solution to determine the deviation of each modeling approach. The dispersion of both evaporative and non-evaporative particle clouds has been considered in 12 simulations using URANS and LES. Most of the models predict reasonably well the shape and the horizontal and vertical ranges of the buoyant thermal cloud generated by the warm exhalation into an initially quiescent colder ambient. However, the vertical turbulent mixing is generally underpredicted, especially by the URANS-based simulations, independently of the specific turbulence model used (and only to a lesser extent by LES). In comparison to DNS, both approaches are found to overpredict the horizontal range covered by the small particle cloud that tends to remain afloat within the thermal cloud well after the flow injection has ceased.
Keywords: numerical simulations, computational fluid dynamics
Published in DKUM: 28.03.2024; Views: 406; Downloads: 450
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2.
Introduction to the Computer Simulations : Script
Nejc Novak, Matej Borovinšek, Matej Vesenjak, Zoran Ren, 2024

Abstract: The script entitled „Introduction to the computer simulations“ in the field of Engineering Computer Simulations is intended as a study aid in the lectures of the courses Engineering Computer Simulations for foreign students at the University of Maribor and for students at Kumamoto University, Japan. It explains all the material that students must master in these subjects, and is consistent with the subject curriculum. The basics of computational simulations, based on the Finite Element Method, are given from the theoretical basics to step-by-step preparation of simple computational models and their analysis in PrePoMax software.
Keywords: computational simulations, solid mechanics, Finite Element Method, designing, numerical methods
Published in DKUM: 12.03.2024; Views: 343; Downloads: 24
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3.
Vibration fatigue analysis of two different variants of oil suction pipes
Marko Zadravec, Srečko Glodež, Christian Buzzi, Peter Brunnhofer, Martin Leitner, Janez Kramberger, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: In order to reduce the overall mass of the product, an improved variant of the engine oil suction pipe in hybrid design is developed and analysed as part of this paper. The vibration fatigue analysis of a simple all-metal suction pipe and the new hybrid suction pipe variant is derived using computer FEA simulations and vibration measurements on the shaker. The hybrid design of the technical components makes it possible to combine different types of materials in order to achieve the best possible properties and behaviours for the components under the influence of external loads. In our case, we combine a suction pipe made of S235JR mild steel with a 3D-printed polyamide intake funnel featuring a grid designed to prevent particles from entering the engine’s lubrication circuit. This design reduces the mass and shifts the centre of gravity closer to the attachment point of the pipe, as well as to the engine crankcase, which has a positive effect on the values of natural frequencies and vibration amplitudes. The main objective of such a hybrid suction pipe is precisely to reduce vibrations, and thus extend the service life of the components.
Keywords: oil suction pipe, vibration fatigue, failure analyses, experimental testing, numerical simulations
Published in DKUM: 26.02.2024; Views: 590; Downloads: 618
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4.
Cavitation erosion modelling : comparison of different driving pressure approaches
Luka Kevorkijan, Marko Pezdevšek, Ignacijo Biluš, Gorazd Hren, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: In this paper we compared different driving pressure approaches to calculate the cavitation potential energy from a source, which is transferred to a surface. The first approach used the reference pressure, the second approach used the pressure calculated at each timestep with no averaging, the third approach used the averaged pressure values from all timesteps included in one shedding cycle, and the last approach used pressure values from the steady state simulations results. The results show that for all formulations the averaged pressure values and steady state pressure values give similar results in terms of mean potential power distribution on the hydrofoil surface as in absolute values. The reference pressure approach gave similar results for the derivative and divergence formulation while for the source term the mean potential power distribution on the hydrofoil surface differs and the maximums were near the leading edge. The approach where we used no pressure averaging gave adequate results in terms of mean potential power distribution but differs from other approaches in absolute values which were considerably lower for all potential power formulations.
Keywords: cavitation, erosion potentional, driving pressure, numerical simulations
Published in DKUM: 21.02.2024; Views: 345; Downloads: 11
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5.
Numerical analysis of temperature field during hardfacing process and comparison with experimental results
Vukić Lazić, Ivana Ivanović, Aleksandar Sedmak, Rebeka Rudolf, Mirjana Lazić, Zoran Radaković, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: The three-dimensional transient nonlinear thermal analysis of the hard facing process is performed by using the finite element method. The simulations were executed on the open source Salome platform using the open source finite element solver Code Aster. The Gaussian double ellipsoid was selected in order to enable greater possibilities for the calculation of the moving heat source. The numerical results were compared with available experimental results.
Keywords: welding simulations, numerical analysis, thermal analysis, simulations, transient heat conduction, moving heat source
Published in DKUM: 07.07.2017; Views: 1447; Downloads: 387
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6.
Simulations of transformer inrush current by using BDF-based numerical methods
Amir Tokić, Ivo Uglešić, Gorazd Štumberger, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper describes three different ways of transformer modeling for inrush current simulations. The developed transformer models are not dependent on an integration step, thus they can be incorporated in a state-space form of stiff differential equation systems. The eigenvalue propagations during simulation time cause very stiff equation systems. The state-space equation systems are solved by using A- and L-stable numerical differentiation formulas (NDF2) method. This method suppresses spurious numerical oscillations in the transient simulations. The comparisons between measured and simulated inrush and steady-state transformer currents are done for all three of the proposed models. The realized nonlinear inductor, nonlinear resistor, and hysteresis model can be incorporated in the EMTP-type programs by using a combination of existing trapezoidal and proposed NDF2 methods.
Keywords: simulations, transformers, numerical methods
Published in DKUM: 15.06.2017; Views: 1795; Downloads: 383
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7.
ERROR PROBABILITY MODEL FOR IEEE 802.15.4 WIRELESS TRANSMISSION WITH CO-CHANNEL INTERFERENCE AND BACKGROUND NOISE
Uroš Pešović, 2016, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Data transmission sent through wireless channel is usually affected by background noise, multipath fading and interference which cause data errors. Influence of such disturbances is the most commonly expressed in a form of error probability statistics. Effects of these disturbances on IEEE 802.15.4 wireless transmissions are previously studied, except influence of co-channel interference (CCI) which originates from collision between IEEE 802.15.4 devices which perform simultaneous radio transmission. Our thesis puts forward the assumption that it is possible to derive more accurate analytical error probability model for higher data level error probability parameters without the idealization of PN spreading sequences. Additionally, thesis is that is possible to derive an accurate analytical error probability model in the case of CCI influenced by background noise by consideration of constellation diagram. IEEE 802.15.4 standard uses CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) channel access mechanism to prevent collisions between devices, but this mechanism doesn't provide protection from hidden node problem which is primary source of co-channel interference. Using Monte Carlo simulations we determined frequency of hidden node collisions, which shown that co-channel interference frequently occur in parts of the network with high traffic load. Some prior works in this field tend to idealize these non-ideal spreading sequences in order to simplify calculations for error probability parameters. Our doctor thesis presents analytical model of data level error probability parameters (symbol, bit and packet) for IEEE 802.15.4, which uses original non-ideal spreading sequences without their idealization. Proposed error probability model consists of mutually dependent chip, symbol, bit and packet error probability models. Derived error probability models are linked together, so each of error probability parameters can be determined using error probability parameter from the previous stage. Error probability model for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless communication could be used in network simulation tools in order to accurately simulate energy efficient medium access protocols in realistic scenarios. Presented theoretical results are tested by independent numerical simulation of IEEE 802.15.4 transmission according to Monte Carlo method. Simulation results shows that derived models for error probability parameters were matched by two simulation scenarios in background noise, for multipath fading and co-channel interface, respectively Furthermore, the accuracy of derived mathematical models was tested in real-world experiment using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant wireless transceivers for creating co-channel interference. Packets were received by software defined radio platform, which enabled realization of coherent receiver in which all error probability statistics could be collected. The results of the experiment show consistency with proposed analytical error probability models, but some deviations are caused by poor preamble synchronization under low SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) value. The thesis was proved with Monte Carlo simulations of the physical level of the IEEE 802.15.4 communication and experimental measurements on a real physical communication system.
Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4 standard, error probability model, co-channel interference, Rician fading channel, additive white Gaussian noise, wireless transmission, wireless sensor networks, numerical simulations, software defined radio
Published in DKUM: 14.10.2016; Views: 2443; Downloads: 138
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8.
9.
Computational model for the analysis of bending fatigue in gears
Janez Kramberger, Matjaž Šraml, Srečko Glodež, Jože Flašker, Iztok Potrč, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: A computational model for the determination of service life of gears with regard to bending fatigue in a gear tooth root is presented. The fatigue process leading to tooth breakage is divided into crack initiation (Ni) and crack propagation (Np) periods, where the complete service life is defined as N = Ni + Np. The strain-life method in the framework of the FEM method has been used to determine the number of stress cycles Ni required for fatigue crack initiation. Gear tooth crack propagation was simulated using a FEM method based computer program which uses principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. The Paris equation is then used for the further simulation of the fatigue crack growth. The presented model is used to determine the service life of a real spur gear made from through-hardened steel 42CrMo4.
Keywords: machine elements, gears, bending fatigue, service life, fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack propagation, computational simulations, numerical modelling, fracture mechanics
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 3306; Downloads: 99
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10.
Diesel and biodiesel fuel spray simulations
Primož Pogorevc, Breda Kegl, Leopold Škerget, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper deals with the investigation of the influential parameters of a mathematical spray breakup model using different fuels. Beside injection system measurements, fuel physical properties and injection process characteristics were measured, because they are necessary for the spray simulation input. For validation purposes, spray was injected into motionless air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature and filmed with a high-speed camera. Spray macrocharacteristics have been determined on the recorded images. Using the simulation program, the injection processes for diesel, biodiesel, and their 50% blend B50 have been simulated. Spray mathematical model parameters were tuned based on the experimentally gained results. Primary breakup model parameters showed the biggest impact on the spray characteristics and were therefore expressed using the fuel physical properties, the injection process characteristics, and the working regime parameters. Spray simulations into the combustion chamber were made in the end. All of these results are presented and discussed in this paper.
Keywords: fuel spray, spray breakup, biodiesel fuel, fuels, numerical simulations, mathematical model
Published in DKUM: 31.05.2012; Views: 1889; Downloads: 87
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