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1.
In-line higher order mode filters based on long highly uniform fiber tapers
Denis Đonlagić, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a simple and effective design of taper-based higher order mode (HOM) filters that can effectively remove HOMs from the few-mode fibers. For this purpose, a taper manufacturing technique that allows the production of long and highly uniform tapers was developed. A filter performance was demonstrated on a standard single-mode telecommunication fiber operating at 850 nm. The HOM suppression was better than$-$39 dB, and the insertion loss ofthe fundamental mode was less than 0.15 dB.
Keywords: optical fibres, few moded fiber, fiber design, mode conversion, mode filter, noise figure, optical fiber dispersion, optical signal to noise, optical transmission systems, taper
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1286; Downloads: 63
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2.
Uncertainties facilitate aggressive behavior in a spatial hawk-dove game
Matjaž Perc, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: We study effects of additive spatiotemporal random variations, introduced to the payoffs of a spatial hawk-dove game, on the evolution of the reconciliatory and the aggressive strategy. We show that uncertainties facilitate aggressive behavior for a broad range of resource values. In particular, aggressors thrive best if stochastic influences are of the order of magnitude of deterministic payoff values. We argue that random payoff variations are potent and plausible promoters of aggressive behavior in human as well as animal societies if only the hawk-dove game payoff ranking applies.
Keywords: evolutionary game theory, hawk-dove game, noise, spatial games
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 890; Downloads: 23
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3.
Analysis of noise sources produced by faulty small gear units
Aleš Belšak, Jurij Prezelj, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: Noise source vizualization represents an important tool in the field of technical acoustics. There are many different techniques of noise source visualization. Most of them, however, are intended for a specific noise source in a specific type of acoustic environment. Consequently, a certain visualization method can be used only for certain types of noise sources in a specific acoustic environment and in a restricted frequency area. This paper presents a new visualization method of complex noise sources on the basis of the use of an acoustic camera. A new algorithm has been used, which makes it possible to visualize all types of different complex noise sources. Monopole, dipole or quadropole noise sources can be observed simultaneously. It is possible to track a moving noise source by means of an acoustic camera. In addition to that it is possible to observe various transient acoustical phenomena. Through the use in diagnostics, it is possible to define, by means of noise, the condition of mechanical systems at an advance level.
Keywords: gears, failure, noise sources, visualization of noise sources, sound, acoustic analysis, acoustic camera, signal analysis, acoustic image, measurements
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 999; Downloads: 24
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4.
A noise robust feature extraction algorithm using joint wavelet packet subband decomposition and AR modeling of speech signals
Bojan Kotnik, Zdravko Kačič, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a noise robust feature extraction algorithm NRFE using joint wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) and autoregressive (AR) modeling of a speech signal. In opposition to the short time Fourier transform (STFT)-based time-frequency signal representation, wavelet packet decomposition can lead to better representation of non-stationary parts of the speech signal (e.g. consonants). The vowels are well described with an AR model as in LPC analysis. The proposed Root-Log compression scheme is used to perform the computation of the wavelet packet parameters. The separately extracted WPD and AR-based parameters are combined together and then transformed with the usage of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to finally produce a lower dimensional output feature vector. The noise robustness is improved with the application of proposed wavelet-based denoising algorithm with a modified soft thresholding procedure and time-frequency adaptive threshold. The proposed voice activity detector based on a skewness-to-kurtosis ratio of the LPC residual signal is used to effectively perform a frame-dropping principle. The speech recognition results achieved on Aurora 2 and Aurora 3 databases show overall performance improvement of 44.7% and 48.2% relative to the baseline MFCC front-end, respectively.
Keywords: automatic speech recognition, autoregressive modeling, modified soft thresholding, noise robust speech parameterization, wavelet packet decomposition
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1174; Downloads: 51
URL Link to full text

5.
Characterization of corrosion processes by current noise wavelet-based fractaland correlation analysis
Peter Planinšič, Aljana Petek, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: Electrochemical noise data in the presence of pitting, general corrosion and passivity were analyzed using the discrete wavelet transform. The registered current noise was decomposed into a set of band-limited details, which contain information about corrosion events occurring at a determined time-scale. It has been observed that the signal variance and variances of details depend on the intensity of processes. Distribution of the signal energy among different details was characteristic for the particular type of corrosion. The characterization of corrosion processes on the basis of in the wavelet domain calculated Hurst parameter H and fractal dimension, D, of electrochemical noise signals has been established. It is concluded that general corrosion is a stationary random process with a weak persistence and D= 2.14, whereas pitting corrosion is a non-stationary process with a long memory effect and D = 1.07. Passivity is a non-stationary process near to the Brownian motion with D = 1.56. The persistence features of electrochemical noise signals were explained also by correlation coefficients calculated between signals obtained by discrete wavelet multiresolution decomposition.
Keywords: elektrokemijski šum, valčki, Hurstov parameter, fraktalna dimenzija, korelacijski koeficient, korozija, electrochemical noise, wavelets, Hurst parameter, fractal dimension, correlation coefficients, corrosion
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1181; Downloads: 56
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6.
Analysis of vibrations and noise to determine the condition of gear units
Aleš Belšak, Jurij Prezelj, 2011, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: The main goal of maintenance is to maintain the characteristics of a technical system at the most favourable or still acceptable level. Maintenance costs can be reduced, operation can become more reliable and the frequency and complexity of damages can be reduced. To evaluate the condition of a technical system, it is necessary to collect precise data, and the to analyse, compare and process this data properly. Gear units are the most frequent machine parts or couplings. They consist of a housing, toothed wheels, bearings and a lubricating system and are of various types and sizes. Durable damages in gear units are often a resulta of the following factors: geometrical deviations or unbalanced component parts, material fatigue, which is a result of engagement of a gear pair, or damages caused to roller bearings. To monitor the condition of mechanical systems, methods for measuring vibrations and noise are usually used; data about a gear unit can be acquired in this way. Afterwards certain tools are used to analyse the data. Features that denote the presence of damages and faults are identified in this way.
Keywords: vibrations, noise source identification, maintenance, gears
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 958; Downloads: 46
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8.
Establishing the stochastic nature of intracellular calcium oscillations from experimental data
Matjaž Perc, Anne K. Green, C. Jane Dixon, Marko Marhl, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: Calcium has been established as a key messenger in both intra- and intercellular signaling. Experimentally observed intracellular calcium responses to different agonists show a variety of behaviors from simple spiking to complex oscillatory regimes. Here we study typical experimental traces of calcium oscillations in hepatocytes obtained in response to phenylephrine and ATP. The traces were analyzed with methods of nonlinear time series analysis in order to determine the stochastic/deterministic nature of the intracellular calcium oscillations. Despite the fact that the oscillations appear, visually, to be deterministic yet perturbed by noise, our analyses provide strong evidence that the measured calcium traces in hepatocytes are prevalently of stochastic nature. In particular, bursting calcium oscillations are temporally correlated Gaussian series distorted by a monotonic, instantaneous, time-independent function, whilst the spiking behavior appears to have a dynamical nonlinear component whereby the overall determinism level is still low. The biological importance of this finding is discussed in relation to the mechanisms incorporated in mathematical models as well as the role of stochasticity and determinism at cellular and tissue levels which resemble typical statistical and thermodynamic effects in physics.
Keywords: dynamic systems, stochastic processes, cellular signaling, calcium oscillations, time series analyses, noise, temporal correlation
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 992; Downloads: 66
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9.
Effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in neural media
Matjaž Perc, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: We present an overview of possible effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in a two-dimensional network of excitable neural media with FitzHugh-Nagumo local dynamics. Small-world networks are characterized by a given fraction of so-called long-range couplings or shortcut links that connect distant units of the system, while all other units are coupled in a diffusive-like manner. Interestingly, already a small fraction of these long-range couplings can have wide-ranging effects on the temporal as well as spatial noise-induced dynamics of the system. Here we present two main effects. First, we show that the temporal order, characterized by the autocorrelation of a firing-rate function, can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of small-world connectivity, whereby the effect increases with the increasing fraction of introduced shortcut links. Second, we show that the introduction of long-range couplings induces disorderof otherwise ordered, spiral-wave-like, noise-induced patterns that can be observed by exclusive diffusive connectivity of spatial units. Thereby, already a small fraction of shortcut links is sufficient to destroy coherent pattern formation in the media. Although the two results seem contradictive, we provide an explanation considering the inherent scale-free nature of small-world networks, which on one hand, facilitates signal transduction and thus temporal order in the system, whilst on the other hand, disrupts the internal spatial scale of the media thereby hindering the existence of coherent wave-like patterns. Additionally, the importance of spatially versus temporally ordered neural network functioning is discussed.
Keywords: physics, complex systems, dynamical systems, noise, chaos, chaotic systems, chaos control, resonance
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 1055; Downloads: 48
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10.
Spatial coherence resonance in neuronal media with discrete local dynamics
Matjaž Perc, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: We study effects of spatiotemporal additive noise on the spatial dynamics of excitable neuronal media that is locally modelled by a two-dimensional map. We focus on the ability of noise to enhance a particular spatial frequency of the media in a resonant manner. We show that there exists an optimal noise intensity for which the inherent spatial periodicity of the media is resonantly pronounced, thus marking the existence of spatial coherence resonance in the studied system. Additionally, results are discussed in view of their possible biological importance.
Keywords: physics, complex systems, dynamical systems, noise, spatial dynamics, chaos, chaotic systems, chaos control, resonance
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 1262; Downloads: 60
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