Opis: In the largest, currently known, class of one quadrillion globally consistent F-theory Standard Models with gauge coupling unification and no chiral exotics, the vectorlike spectra are counted by cohomologies of root bundles. In this work, we apply a previously proposed method to identify toric base threefolds, which are promising to establish F-theory Standard Models with exactly three quark doublets and no vectorlike exotics in this representation. The base spaces in question are obtained from triangulations of 708 polytopes. By studying root bundles on the quark-doublet curve Cð3;2Þ1=6 and employing well-known results about desingularizations of toric K3 surfaces, we derive a triangulation independent lower bound Nˇ ð3Þ P for the number Nð3Þ P of root bundles on Cð3;2Þ1=6 with exactly three sections. The ratio Nˇ ð3Þ P =NP, where NP is the total number of roots on Cð3;2Þ1=6 , is largest for base spaces associated with triangulations of the eighth three-dimensional polytope Δ∘ 8 in the Kreuzer-Skarke list. For each of these Oð1015Þ threefolds, we expect that many root bundles on Cð3;2Þ1=6 are induced from F-theory gauge potentials and that at least every 3000th root on Cð3;2Þ1=6 has exactly three global sections and thus no exotic vectorlike quark-doublet modes. Ključne besede:astrophysics, compactification, string theory models, geometry, higher-dimensional field theories, mathematical physics, quantum fields in curved spacetime, string phenomenology, supersymmetric models, topology Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.10.2023; Ogledov: 219; Prenosov: 11 Celotno besedilo (444,13 KB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

Opis: In biological signal transduction pathways intermediates are often oscillatory and need to be converted into smooth output signals at the end. We show by mathematical modelling that protein kinase cascades enable converting oscillatory signals into sharp stationary step-like outputs. The importance of this result is demonstrated for the switch-like protein activation by calcium oscillations, which is of biological importance for regulating different cellular processes. In addition, we found that protein kinase cascades cause memory effects in the protein activation, which might be of a physiological advantage since a smaller amount of calcium transported in the cell is required for an effective activation of cellular processes. Ključne besede:physics, calcium oscillations, mathematical modelling, calcium, calcium oscillations, sygnalling cascade, protein kinase cascades, signal transduction, ultrasensitivity, biochemical switch, cellular dynamics Objavljeno v DKUM: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 2100; Prenosov: 91 Povezava na celotno besedilo