1. The role of anaplerotic metabolism of glucose and glutamine in insulin secretion : a model approachVladimir Grubelnik, Jan Zmazek, Marko Gosak, Marko Marhl, 2024, original scientific article Abstract: We propose a detailed computational beta cell model that emphasizes the role of anaplerotic metabolism under glucose and glucose-glutamine stimulation. This model goes beyond the traditional focus on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP-sensitive K+ channels, highlighting the predominant generation of ATP from phosphoenolpyruvate in the vicinity of KATP channels. It also underlines the modulatory role of H2O2 as a signaling molecule in the first phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In the second phase, the model emphasizes the critical role of anaplerotic pathways, activated by glucose stimulation via pyruvate carboxylase and by glutamine via glutamate dehydrogenase. It particularly focuses on the production of NADPH and glutamate as key enhancers of insulin secretion. The predictions of the model are consistent with empirical data, highlighting the complex interplay of metabolic pathways and emphasizing the primary role of glucose and the facilitating role of glutamine in insulin secretion. By delineating these crucial metabolic pathways, the model provides valuable insights into potential therapeutic targets for diabetes. Keywords: mathematical models, pancreatic beta cell, pyruvate-malate cycle Published in DKUM: 06.06.2024; Views: 157; Downloads: 6 Full text (5,53 MB) This document has many files! More... |
2. Development of mathematical models in explicit form for design and analysis of axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machinesFranjo Pranjić, Peter Virtič, 2020, original scientific article Abstract: This article proposes a methodology for the design of double-sided coreless axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines, which is based on a developed model for calculating the axial component of the magnetic flux density in the middle of the distance between opposite permanent magnets, which also represents the middle of the stator. Values for different geometric parameters represent the input data for the mathematical model in explicit form. The input data are calculated by using a simplified finite element method (FEM), which means that calculations of simplified 3D models are performed. The simplified model consists of two rotor disks with surfacemounted permanent magnets and air between them, instead of stator windings. Such a simplification is possible due to similar values of permeability of the air and copper. For each simplified model of the machine the axial component of the magnetic flux density is analyzed along a line passing through the center of opposite permanent magnets and both rotor disks. Values at the middle of the distance between the opposite permanent magnets are the lowest and are therefore selected for the input data at different stator, rotor disks and permanent magnets (PM) thicknesses. Such input data enable the model to consider the nonlinearity of materials. Keywords: axial flux, analysis, coreless, development, design, explicit form, finite element method, mathematical models, permanent magnet, synchronous Published in DKUM: 01.12.2023; Views: 490; Downloads: 15 Full text (2,70 MB) This document has many files! More... |
3. Statistics of limit root bundles relevant for exact matter spectra of F-theory MSSMsMartin Bies, Mirjam Cvetič, Mingqiang Liu, 2021, original scientific article Abstract: In the largest, currently known, class of one quadrillion globally consistent F-theory Standard Models with gauge coupling unification and no chiral exotics, the vectorlike spectra are counted by cohomologies of root bundles. In this work, we apply a previously proposed method to identify toric base threefolds, which are promising to establish F-theory Standard Models with exactly three quark doublets and no vectorlike exotics in this representation. The base spaces in question are obtained from triangulations of 708 polytopes. By studying root bundles on the quark-doublet curve Cð3;2Þ1=6 and employing well-known results about desingularizations of toric K3 surfaces, we derive a triangulation independent lower bound Nˇ ð3Þ P for the number Nð3Þ P of root bundles on Cð3;2Þ1=6 with exactly three sections. The ratio Nˇ ð3Þ P =NP, where NP is the total number of roots on Cð3;2Þ1=6 , is largest for base spaces associated with triangulations of the eighth three-dimensional polytope Δ∘ 8 in the Kreuzer-Skarke list. For each of these Oð1015Þ threefolds, we expect that many root bundles on Cð3;2Þ1=6 are induced from F-theory gauge potentials and that at least every 3000th root on Cð3;2Þ1=6 has exactly three global sections and thus no exotic vectorlike quark-doublet modes. Keywords: astrophysics, compactification, string theory models, geometry, higher-dimensional field theories, mathematical physics, quantum fields in curved spacetime, string phenomenology, supersymmetric models, topology Published in DKUM: 16.10.2023; Views: 308; Downloads: 25 Full text (444,13 KB) This document has many files! More... |
4. Using different surface energy models to assess the interactions between antiviral coating films and phi6 model virusZdenka Peršin Fratnik, Olivija Plohl, Vanja Kokol, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2023, original scientific article Abstract: High molecular weight chitosan (HMWCh), quaternised cellulose nanofibrils (qCNF), and their mixture showed antiviral potential in liquid phase, while this effect decreased when applied to facial masks, as studied in our recent work. To gain more insight into material antiviral activity, spin-coated thin films were prepared from each suspension (HMWCh, qCNF) and their mixture with a 1:1 ratio. To understand their mechanism of action, the interactions between these model films with various polar and nonpolar liquids and bacteriophage phi6 (in liquid phase) as a viral surrogate were studied. Surface free energy (SFE) estimates were used as a tool to evaluate the potential adhesion of different polar liquid phases to these films by contact angle measurements (CA) using the sessile drop method. The Fowkes, Owens–Wendt–Rabel–Kealble (OWRK), Wu, and van Oss–Chaudhury–Good (vOGC) mathematical models were used to estimate surface free energy and its polar and dispersive contributions, as well as the Lewis acid and Lewis base contributions. In addition, the surface tension SFT of liquids was also determined. The adhesion and cohesion forces in wetting processes were also observed. The estimated SFE of spin-coated films varied between mathematical models (26–31 mJ/m2) depending on the polarity of the solvents tested, but the correlation between models clearly indicated a significant dominance of the dispersion components that hinder wettability. The poor wettability was also supported by the fact that the cohesive forces in the liquid phase were stronger than the adhesion to the contact surface. In addition, the dispersive (hydrophobic) component dominated in the phi6 dispersion, and since this was also the case in the spin-coated films, it can be assumed that weak physical van der Waals forces (dispersion forces) and hydrophobic interactions occurred between phi6 and the polysaccharide films, resulting in the virus not being in sufficient contact with the tested material during antiviral testing of the material to be inactivated by the active coatings of the polysaccharides used. Regarding the contact killing mechanism, this is a disadvantage that can be overcome by changing the previous material surface (activation). In this way, HMWCh, qCNF, and their mixture can attach to the material surface with better adhesion, thickness, and different shape and orientation, resulting in a more dominant polar fraction of SFE and thus enabling the interactions within the polar part of phi6 dispersion. Keywords: films, surface free energy, SFE mathematical models, phi6, wettability, spreading, interactions Published in DKUM: 21.04.2023; Views: 538; Downloads: 34 Full text (3,21 MB) |
5. The calculation of specific heats for some important solid components in hydrogen production process based on CuCl cycleJurij Avsec, 2014, original scientific article Abstract: Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy sources of the future enabling direct production of power and heat in fuel cells, hydrogen engines or furnaces with hydrogen burners. One of the last remainder problems in hydrogen technology is how to produce a sufficient amount of cheap hydrogen. One of the best options is large scale thermochemical production of hydrogen in combination with nuclear power plant. copper-chlorine (CuCl) cycle is the most promissible thermochemical cycle to produce cheap hydrogen.This paper focuses on a CuCl cycle, and the describes the models how to calculate thermodynamic properties. Unfortunately, for many components in CuCl cycle the thermochemical functions of state have never been measured. This is the reason that we have tried to calculate some very important thermophysical properties. This paper discusses the mathematical model for computing the thermodynamic properties for pure substances and their mixtures such as CuCl, HCl, Cu2OCl2 important in CuCl hydrogen production in their fluid and solid phase with an aid of statistical thermodynamics. For the solid phase, we have developed the mathematical model for the calculation of thermodynamic properties for polyatomic crystals. In this way, we have used Debye functions and Einstein function for acoustical modes and optical modes of vibrations to take into account vibration of atoms. The influence of intermolecular energy we have solved on the basis of Murnaghan equation of state and statistical thermodynamics. Keywords: thermodynamics, molecular crystals, mathematical models, statistical thermodynamics Published in DKUM: 07.07.2017; Views: 2397; Downloads: 425 Full text (266,80 KB) This document has many files! More... |
6. Selective regulation of protein activity by complex Ca[sup]2+ oscillations : a theoretical studyBeate Knoke, Marko Marhl, Stefan Schuster, 2007, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph Abstract: Calcium oscillations play an important role in intracellular signal transduction. As a second messenger, ▫$Ca^{2+}$▫ represents a link between several input signals and several target processes in the cell. Whereas the frequency of simple ▫$Ca^{2+}$▫ oscillations enables a selective activation of a specific protein and herewith a particular process, the question arises of how at the same time two or more classes of proteins can be specifically regulated. The question is general and concerns the problem of how one second messenger can transmit more than one signal simultaneously (bow-tie structure of signalling). To investigate whether a complex ▫$Ca^{2+}$▫ signal like bursting, a succession of low-peak and high-peak oscillatory phases, could selectively activate different proteins, several bursting patterns with simplified square pulses were applied in a theoretical model. The results indicate that bursting ▫$Ca^{2+}$▫ oscillations allow a differential regulation of two different calcium-binding proteins, and hence, perform the desired function. Keywords: biophysics, calcium oscillations, cellular dynamics, mathematical models, signalling, bow-tie structures, bursting, decoding Published in DKUM: 07.06.2012; Views: 2019; Downloads: 39 Link to full text |
7. Proximity to periodic windows in bifurcation diagrams as a gateway to coherence resonance in chaotic systemsMarko Gosak, Matjaž Perc, 2007, original scientific article Abstract: We show that chaotic states situated in the proximity of periodic windows in bifurcation diagrams are eligible for the observation of coherence resonance. In particular, additive Gaussian noise of appropriate intensity can enhance the temporal order in such chaotic states in a resonant manner. Results obtained for the logistic map and the Lorenz equations suggest that the presented mechanism of coherence resonance is valid beyond particularities of individual systems. We attribute the findings to the increasing attraction of imminent periodic orbits and the ability of noise to anticipate their existence and use a modified wavelet analysis to support our arguments. Keywords: chaotic systems, spatial resonance, coherence resonance, nonlinear systems, noise, spatial dynamics, mathematical models, bifurcation diagrame Published in DKUM: 07.06.2012; Views: 2400; Downloads: 134 Link to full text This document has many files! More... |
8. Transition from Gaussian to Levy distributions of stochastic payoff variations in the spatial prisoner's dilemma gameMatjaž Perc, 2007, original scientific article Abstract: We study the impact of stochastic payoff variations with different distributions on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. We find that Gaussian-distributed payoff variations are most successful in promoting cooperation irrespective of the temptation to defect. In particular, the facilitative effect of noise on the evolution of cooperation decreases steadily as the frequency of rare events increases. Findings are explained via an analysis of local payoff ranking violations. The relevance of results for economics and sociology is discussed. Keywords: stochastic systems, spatial resonance, stochastic payoff variations, nonlinear systems, noise, spatial dynamics, mathematical models, prisoner's dilemma Published in DKUM: 07.06.2012; Views: 2112; Downloads: 108 Link to full text |
9. Review of experimental models for confirmation of mathematical models of gearsBoris Aberšek, Jože Flašker, 2008, original scientific article Abstract: In order to calculate the service life as precisely and reliably as possible we need good mathematical models for describing loading, geometry, properties of materials and fracture mechanics parameters. It can be established whether a mathematical model is precise and reliable only by comparison of results of the method such as analytical methods in case of simple problems and experiment when real complex structure are deal with. Since gears and gearing belong to the second group, by correctly selected and developed test pieces and carefully planned experiments we obtained results with which we confirmed and justified the mathematical model for calculating mentioned parameters. To this end we will show in this paper series of experimental methods and test pieces used on the gears. Keywords: machine elements, gears, mathematical models, testing, experimental methods, numerical analyses Published in DKUM: 07.06.2012; Views: 1639; Downloads: 67 Link to full text |
10. MLC-kinase/phosphatase control of Ca[sup]2+ signal transduction in airway smooth musclesAleš Fajmut, Milan Brumen, 2008, original scientific article Abstract: In airway smooth muscles, kinase/phosphatase-dependent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the myosin light chain (MLC) have been revealed by many authors as important steps in calcium ▫$(Ca^{2+})$▫ signalling pathway from the variation of ▫$Ca^{2+}$▫ concentration in cytosol to the force development. Here, a theoretical analysis of the control action of MLC-kinase (MLCK) and MLC-phosphatase (MLCP) in ▫$Ca^{2+}$▫ signalling is presented and related to the general control principles of these enzymes, which were previously studied by Reinhart Heinrich and his co-workers. The kinetic scheme of the mathematical model considers interactions among ▫$Ca^{2+}$▫, calmodulin (CaM) and MLCK and the well-known 4-state actomyosin latch bridge model, whereby a link between them is accomplished by the conservation relation of all species of MLCK. The mathematical model predicts the magnitude and velocity of isometric force in smooth muscles upon transient biphasic ▫$Ca^{2+}$▫ signal. The properties of signal transduction in the system such as the signalling time, signal duration and signal amplitude, which are reflected in the properties of force developed, are studied by the principles of the metabolic control theory. The analysis of our model predictions confirms as shown by Reinhart Heinrich and his co-workers that MLCK controls the amplitude of signal more than its duration, whereas MLCP controls both. Finally, the simulations of elevated total content of MLCK, a typical feature of bronchial muscles of asthmatic subjects and spontaneously hypertensive rats as well as potentiation of MLCP catalytic activity, are carried out and are discussed in view of an increase in the force magnitude. Keywords: cells, calcium, calcium oscillations, myosin light chains, enzyme activities, mathematical models Published in DKUM: 07.06.2012; Views: 2342; Downloads: 33 Link to full text |