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LiDAR-Based Maintenance of a Safe Distance between a Human and a Robot Arm
David Podgorelec, Suzana Uran, Andrej Nerat, Božidar Bratina, Sašo Pečnik, Marjan Dimec, Franc Žaberl, Borut Žalik, Riko Šafarič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of penal policy in Slovenia in the last 70 years, providing an analysis of statistical data on crime, conviction, and prison populations. After a sharp political and penal repression in the first years after World War II, penal and prison policy began paving the way to a unique "welfare sanction system", grounded in ideas of prisoners' treatment. After democratic reforms in the early 1990s, the criminal legislation became harsher, but Slovenia managed to avoid the general punitive trends characterized by the era of penal state and culture of control. The authoritarian socialist regime at its final stage had supported the humanization of the penal system, and this trend continued in the first years of the democratic reforms in the 1990s, but it lost its momentum after 2000. In the following two decades, Slovenia experienced a continuous harshening of criminal law and sanctions on the one hand and an increasing prison population rate on the other. From 2014 onwards, however, there was a decrease in all segments of penal statistics. The findings of the study emphasize the exceptionalism of Slovenian penal policy, characterized by penal moderation, which is the product of the specific local historical, political, economic, and normative developments.
Keywords: LIDAR, robot, human-robot collaboration, speed and separation monitoring, intelligent control system, geometric data registration, motion prediction
Published in DKUM: 16.02.2024; Views: 191; Downloads: 17
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Measurement device for testing printed circuit board assemblies coming off the production line
Nejc Friškovec, Manja Obreza, Sebastijan Seme, Klemen Sredenšek, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper presents an efficient way to evaluate and determine the quality of an assembled printed circuit board coming off the production line. A printed circuit board assembly consists of electronic devices soldered to the printed circuit board, which provides the electrical connections. After assembling the printed circuit board, a function test needs to be performed to guarantee the quality of the product. Usually, the assembly lines are equipped with cameras that detect inaccuracies such as missing components. This level of quality assurance is sometimes not enough, and we need to add another degree of precaution. In addition to camera inspections, electronic measurements must be conducted. The process needs to be automated to provide repeatability and speed. The paper evaluates such a device and presents its advantages, disadvantages, and complexity. The device includes an electrical part that performs the measurements, a mechanical part that consists of a housing and a mounting nest, and a program that supervises the process.
Keywords: electrical measurement, printed circuit board, testing device, automation, intelligent measuring system
Published in DKUM: 30.10.2023; Views: 225; Downloads: 5
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Intelligent user interfaces and their evaluation: a systematic mapping study
Saša Brdnik, Tjaša Heričko, Boštjan Šumak, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Intelligent user interfaces (IUI) are driven by the goal of improvement in human–computer interaction (HCI), mainly improving user interfaces’ user experience (UX) or usability with the help of artificial intelligence. The main goal of this study is to find, assess, and synthesize existing state-of-the-art work in the field of IUI with an additional focus on the evaluation of IUI. This study analyzed 211 studies published in the field between 2012 and 2022. Studies are most frequently tied to HCI and SE domains. Definitions of IUI were observed, showing that adaptation, representation, and intelligence are key characteristics associated with IUIs, whereas adaptation, reasoning, and representation are the most commonly used verbs in their description. Evaluation of IUI is mainly conducted with experiments and questionnaires, though usability and UX are not considered together in evaluations. Most evaluations (81% of studies) reported partial or complete improvement in usability or UX. A shortage of evaluation tools, methods, and metrics, tailored for IUI, is noticed. Most often, empirical data collection methods and data sources in IUI evaluation studies are experiment, prototype development, and questionnaire.
Keywords: intelligent user interfaces, IUI, usability, user experience, evaluation
Published in DKUM: 01.08.2023; Views: 377; Downloads: 30
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The use of intelligent transport systems in the operation of driving schools : master's thesis
Nikola Božinić, 2022, master's thesis

Abstract: The aim of the master's thesis was to conduct research on the use of intelligent transport systems in the current training of future drivers and their knowledge of the content and also knowledge of the content of employees in teh field of training of future drivers The current methods of driver training in individual countries are presented, with a more detailed description of their implementation and the method of testing the acquired knowledge. At the same time, the survey was conducted in the Republic of Croatia and the information on how well people are generally familiar with the knowledge of intelligent transport systems, how they apply them and what do they consider as usable intelligent systems were collected. The research was also conducted among employees in the field of training of future drivers, also in the Republic of Croatia, where were obtained on what changes employees believe have to be done, or how changes in the automotive industry could affect their work, such as is the phenomenon of autonomous driving. After that, a comparison of driver training nowadays wth the proposal of future training with the use of intelligent transport systems is presented.
Keywords: novice drivers, traffic safety, driving education, intelligent vehicle systems, autonomous driving
Published in DKUM: 29.08.2022; Views: 402; Downloads: 28
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Modular and branched structure of individualized intelligent e-learning materials for science and technology subject course
Kosta Dolenc, Igor Pesek, Boris Aberšek, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: E-learning and online education offers important opportunities for educators as well as for students. Traditional e-materials, as they are known today, do not allow the recognition of different parameters, such as: learning differences, prior knowledge, learning capabilities, learning environment, styles of learning, etc. Because e-materials are structured in such a way they cannot be successfully adapted for learners who consequently cannot control their own learning (Berge, 2002; Picciano, 2000; Saba, 2002). Such a result offers, among others, a highly anti-motivational effect. The preparation of modern e-materials therefore requires a thorough preparation in terms of content and design, which has to be (mostly) based on pedagogical and didactic theories. Modern e-materials, which can also be named educational e-materials, are usually accessible online (internet-based training (IBT), web-based training (WBT), online education, etc.), they enable and encourage self-learning, they are flexible, dynamic, interactive, use different types of media, individualized and adapted to the users needs. Mostly the latter characteristic will receive special attention in the following research.
Keywords: education, individualized e-learning, intelligent system, metadata
Published in DKUM: 15.12.2017; Views: 1314; Downloads: 102
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Artificial intelligence versus human talents in learning process
Janez Bregant, Boris Aberšek, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: To highlight the differences between conventional educational systems and CBLS - computer based learning systems. It is useful to consider CBLS, as the class of a system most closely related to artificial intelligence - AI. In such a system, the ultimate goal is to create a virtual duplicate of reality for learning, analysis, training, experimentation, or other purposes. Simulating reality is an approach that may or may not be useful at creating experience. This distinction yield several consequences. In CBLS, behaviour should be as realistic as possible, the representation of environment tends to be uniform and consistent and allowing users to act freely within that environment. To teach users through realistic experience CBLS design techniques can make the experience much more memorable. In such an environment the context and control afforded by design techniques allow the integration of technologies and evaluation of the overall experience. Perhaps it is time to take lessons of CBLS and AI in a learning design and teaching tools seriously. At the beginning we will point out one simple question: could the ideas, methodology and techniques of AI also be applied to a development of relatively serious mind applications and can they substitute human teachers? And the answer will be continued in our paper.
Keywords: education, intelligent tutors, artificial intelligence, CBLS
Published in DKUM: 12.12.2017; Views: 1283; Downloads: 139
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Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS
Darja Topolšek, Suzana Hribar, Marjan Sternad, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough % vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.
Keywords: traffic, road traffic, road safety, road accidents, intelligent systems, directives, regulations
Published in DKUM: 17.07.2017; Views: 2133; Downloads: 203
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Prediction of technological parameters of sheet metal bending in two stages using feed-forward neural network
Jernej Šenveter, Jože Balič, Mirko Ficko, Simon Klančnik, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper describes sheet metal bending in two stages as well as predicting and testing of the final bend angle by means of a feed-forward neural network. The primary objective was to research the technological parameters of bending sheet metal in two stages and to develop an intelligent method that would enable the predicting of those technological parameters. The process of bending sheet metal in two stages is presented by demonstrating the various technological parameters and the test tool used to carry out tests and measurements. The results of the tests and measurements were of decisive guidance in the evaluation of individual technological parameters. Developed method for prediction of the final bend angle is based on a feed-forward neural network that receives signals at the input level. These signals then travel through the hidden level to the output level, where the responses to input signals are received. The input to the neural network is composed of data that affect the selection of the final bend angle. Only five different inputs are used for the total neural network. By choosing the desired final bend angle by means of the trained neural network, bending sheet metal in two stages is optimised and made more efficient.
Keywords: bending in two stages, intelligent system, neural network, prediction of the final bend angle
Published in DKUM: 12.07.2017; Views: 1192; Downloads: 449
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Intelligent support for defining aesthetical, ergonomical and material properties of designed product
Jasmin Kaljun, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: The presented paper gives an insight into a prototype of intelligent advisory system based on the aesthetic and ergonomic factors regarding product design, with emphasis on appurtenant design recommendations. The paper focuses on methodology of determining appropriate combination of ergonomic and aesthetic design actions during product design to achieve pleasant user experience. Along with products' function, ergonomics and aesthetics certainly belong to the most important design factors that affect user experience. In the field of ergonomics not only anthropometrical characteristics of prospective user are important. It is also of significant importance to select appropriate material for contact areas in order to assure comfortable and injury free use. Presented theoretical findings are supported with case study of hand tool handle design using intelligent advisory system Oscar.
Keywords: aesthetics, ergonomics, intelligent support, material selection, product design
Published in DKUM: 12.07.2017; Views: 1018; Downloads: 215
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Improving products' ergonomic value using intelligent decision support system
Jasmin Kaljun, Bojan Dolšak, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: During the process of defining suitable design solutions, a designer has to consider a wide range of influential factors. Ergonomics certainly belongs to more complex ones. Less experienced designers could encounter several problems during this design stage. Although some literature can be found about ergonomic design of hand tools, a designer still has to have amassed quite a lot of experience and knowledge in the field of ergonomic, in order to choose and carry out appropriate design and redesign actions. Existing computer tools for ergonomic design are not able to assist a designer with higher level advice within design process. An intelligent decision support system has been developed in order to overcome this bottleneck. This paper presents a knowledge base, containing ergonomic design knowledge specific for hand tools design. A pneumatic hammer handle design is used as a case study to show how ergonomic design knowledge built in the system is used to improve the ergonomic value of the product.
Keywords: ergonomija, inteligentna podpora, ročna orodja, zajemanje znanja, razvoj ročke, pnevmatsko kladivo, ergonomics, intelligent support, hand tools, knowledge acquisition, handle design, pneumatic hammer
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1595; Downloads: 137
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