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1.
Hygiene monitoring systems for hospital textile laundering
Sabina Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, 2007, strokovni članek

Opis: The main aim of washing laundry is to remove soils and microorganisms from infected and dirty textiles and achieve clean, fresh and disinfected textiles ready for use. Textiles undergo laundering processes, which include: soil removal with special laundering agents; bleaching; disinfecting; and finally neutralising and rinsing. Because textiles from hospitals may contain many kinds of pathogenic -bacteria, fungi and viruses, it is essential that the laundering process has not only a cleaning effect but also an antimicrobial one. Since users of hospital textiles are often patients with a weakened immune -system, it is recommended that best practice and common sense be employed when washing and -disinfecting hospital textiles. Most people assume that the laundry returned to them is in fact clean and, therefore, safe. Experience encourages all infection control teams to take laundering very seriously. (1-15) Inappropriately disinfected textiles are one of the possible sources of nosocomial infections for patients. There are reports of hospital textiles being the source of nosocomial infection with streptococci, enterococci, Bacillus cereus, staphylococci and coliforms.(5-9) There are some documented cases where staff in hospital wards and laundries have been infected with scabies, fungi, salmonellas, gastroenteritis viruses, hepatitis A viruses and coxiellas after treating dirty laundry.
Ključne besede: textile care, hospital laundry, laundry hygiene, micro-organisms, washing quality parameters, sanitary microbiological parameters, hospital-acquired disease prevention, sanitary measures
Objavljeno: 31.05.2012; Ogledov: 1817; Prenosov: 18
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

2.
Hygiene monitoring of textiles used in the food industry
Sabina Fijan, Avrelija Cencič, Sonja Šostar-Turk, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Protective clothing is required in the food-processing industry, to protect workers from contamination by bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions etc. contained in the secretions and raw meat of slaughtered animals, and to protect the meat from being contaminated by microorganisms carried by the workers. It is well-understood that textiles are a control point (CP), and must be appropriately cleaned and disinfected in order to prevent biocontamination. Although the laundering procedure itself is important for achieving disinfection, it is also essential to maintain an appropriate hygiene level in the laundry, in order to prevent recontamination of textiles by environmental viable microorganisms. In this study, a sanitary-microbiologicalanalysis was carried out in selected CPs in two laundries. Chemo-thermal washing efficiency was determined by evaluating the anti-bacterial effect against Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. The hygienic state of the laundries was determined by evaluating the number and type of microorganisms at selected CPs throughout the whole laundering procedure. The results indicated that the sanitary condition of both laundries did not reach the required levels and that several microbes were resistant to cleaning and disinfecting agents. It is obvious from the results that achievement of an appropriate hygiene level during laundering textiles from the food processing industry requires the implementation of appropriate corrective monitoring measures.
Ključne besede: laundry hygiene, textiles, food-processing industry, occupational health
Objavljeno: 30.05.2012; Ogledov: 1342; Prenosov: 181
.pdf Celotno besedilo (43,87 KB)
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3.
Implementing hygiene monitoring systems in hospital laundries in order to reduce microbial contamination of hospital textiles
Sabina Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, Avrelija Cencič, 2005, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: As textiles sent to hospital laundries contain many types of pathogenic organisms, it is important that laundering not only has an appropriate cleaning effect but also has a satisfactory disinfecting effect. Critical to this process is the maintenance of an appropriate hygiene level in the clean area of laundries in order to prevent recontamination of textiles from manual handling when ironing, folding, packing etc. The aims of this study were to evaluate the hygienic state of a hospital laundry, to introduce continuous sanitary measures, and to introduce a continuous hygiene monitoring system with an infection control programme. Two systems for evaluating hospital laundry hygiene were combined: HACCP principles (hazard analysis and critical control points) and RAL-GZ 992 standards (quality assurance standard for textile care of hospital laundry). Evaluation of the hygienic state of the hospital laundry was carried out by evaluating the number and types of micro-organisms present at the critical control points throughout the whole laundering process, using RODAC agar plates for surface sampling and the pour plate method for investigating water samples. The initial examination showed that the sanitary condition of the laundry did not reach the required hygiene level. Therefore, fundamental sanitation measures were instituted and the examination was repeated. Results were then satisfactory. The most important critical control point was the chemothermal laundering efficiency of the laundering process. To prevent micro-organisms spreading into the entire cleanworking area, it is important that, in addition to regular sanitary measures such as cleaning/disinfecting all working areas, technical equipment and storage shelves etc., regular education sessions for laundry employees on proper hand hygiene is undertaken and effective separation of the clean and dirty working areas is achieved.
Ključne besede: textile care, hospital laundry, laundry hygiene, micro-organisms, washing quality parameters, sanitary microbiological parameters, hospital-acquired disease prevention, sanitary measures
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1987; Prenosov: 46
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

4.
Rotaviral RNA found on various surfaces in a hospital laundry
Sabina Fijan, Andrej Steyer, Mateja Poljšak-Prijatelj, Avrelija Cencič, Sonja Šostar-Turk, Srečko Koren, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of this investigative study was to determine the presence of rotaviral RNA at various control points (CP) of a hospital laundry. One of the possible sources of hospital infections is inappropriately laundered and disinfected hospital textiles. RT-PCR and nested PCR for gene amplification using specific primers following RNA isolation were used to determine the presence of rotaviral RNA on swabs. In addition, rotavirus suspensions were inoculated on marked surfaces as positive controls for different surfaces (cotton textiles, folding table and industrial dryer). Rotaviral RNA was found on various laundry surfaces: technical equipment, storage shelves, transport vehicles, personnel's hands, damp textiles, and folded laundry. Rotaviral RNA was also detected at all positive controls on tested surfaces after 24 h. Based on the results, it is very important to take into consideration the proper handling of textiles after washing as one of the precautions against hospital-acquired infections. This paper reports the presence of rotaviral RNA for the first time on surfaces in laundries and equipment, as well as textiles.
Ključne besede: laundry hygiene, rotaviruses, hospital-acquired disease prevention, sanitary measures, occupational health
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1765; Prenosov: 52
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

5.
Antimicrobial disinfection effect of a laundering procedure for hospital textiles against various indicator bacteria and fungi using different substrates for simulating human excrements
Sabina Fijan, Srečko Koren, Avrelija Cencič, Sonja Šostar-Turk, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Recent studies confirm the increase of nosocomial infections and microbial resistance. One of the possible causes is infected textiles due to inappropriate laundering procedures. Most Slovenian laundries use thermal laundering procedures with high energy and water consumption to disinfect hospital textiles. In addition to this fact, there is an increasing number of hospital textiles composed of cotton/polyester blends that cannot endure high temperatures of thermal disinfection. On the other hand, decreasing the temperature of laundering procedures enhances the possibility of pathogenic microorganisms to survive the laundering procedure. In our research, we determined the antimicrobic laundering effect by simulating a common laundering procedure for hospital textiles in the laboratory washing machine at different temperatures by the use of bioindicators. Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium terrae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for determining the antibacterial laundering effect. Candida albicans was used for determining the antifungal laundering effect. Swine blood, artificial sweat, and swine fat were used as substrates for simulating human excrements and were inoculated together with the chosen microorganisms onto cotton pieces to simulate real laundering conditions. It was found that E. faecium, S. aureus, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa survivedat 60 °C, but no microorganisms were found at 75 °C.
Ključne besede: textile care, hospital laundry, laundry hygiene, micro-organisms, bioindicators, disinfection effect, hospital-acquired disease prevention, sanitary measures
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1829; Prenosov: 65
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

6.
Efficiency of four sampling methods used to detect two common nosocomial pathogens on textiles
Urška Rozman, Sonja Šostar-Turk, Sabina Fijan, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Detecting microorganisms on textiles is useful for many purposes, for example to determine the bioburden before laundering, assess the reduction in bacterial counts in connection with various laundry processes, or trace transfer routes in infection control investigations. Therefore a validated, reproducible and rational method is needed. For sampling microorganisms on textile surfaces the most commonly used method is the contact plate method using RODAC plates, first described by Hall and Hartnett followed by the swab sampling technique. Both methods can only capture microorganisms on the surface of the textiles while microorganisms that have penetrated into the deeper structure of the material will not be detected. In our research the contact plate method and the swabbing technique were compared with two wash-off methods. For the first wash-off method the destructive elution methodwas used, where microorganisms were eluted from the fabrics by shaking the fabrics for a certain time in an elution medium. For the fourth sampling method a nondestructive method that included a compact test device called MorapexŽ was used, which is based on forced desorption by pressing the microorganisms through the fabric without destroying the fabric. In our research, two types of microorganisms were included (Klebsiella pneumoniae andStaphylococcus aureus) that cause common nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of the four sampling methods for detecting microorganisms on textiles and to determine the lowest concentration, which can still be detected. The percentage of microorganisms that were detected by both elution methods was substantially higher than by sampling of fabrics with the contact plate method or swabbing. It can be concluded that a nondestructive method using a modified MorapexŽ device can beapplied for quick determination of the hygienic condition of textiles.
Ključne besede: textile hygiene, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, swabbing, RODAC plates, elution method, Morapex
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 639; Prenosov: 55
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

7.
8.
Hospital textiles, are they a possible vehicle for healthcare-associated infections?
Sabina Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, 2012, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Textiles are a common material in healthcare facilities; therefore it is important that they do not pose as a vehicle for the transfer of pathogens to patients or hospital workers. During the course of use hospital textiles become contaminated and laundering is necessary. Laundering of healthcare textiles is most commonly adequate, but in some instances, due to inappropriate disinfection or subsequent recontamination, the textiles may become a contaminated inanimate surface with the possibility to transfer pathogens. In this review we searched the published literature in order to answer four review questions: (1) Are there any reports on the survival of microorganisms on hospital textiles after laundering? (2) Are there any reports that indicate the presence of microorganisms on hospital textiles during use? (3) Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection of patients? (4) Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection for healthcare workers?
Ključne besede: textile hygiene, disinfection, hospital-acquired infections, inanimate surfaces, infection transmission vehicles
Objavljeno: 21.06.2017; Ogledov: 364; Prenosov: 200
.pdf Celotno besedilo (137,40 KB)
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