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1.
Computational approach to contact fatigue damage initiation analysis of gear teeth flanks
Matjaž Šraml, Jože Flašker, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper describes a general computational model for the simulation of contact fatigue-damage initiation in the contact area of meshing gears. The model considers the continuum mechanics approach, where the use of homogenous and elastic material is assumed. The stress field in the contact area and the relationship between the cyclic contact loading conditions and observed contact points on the tooth flank are simulated with moving Hertzian contact pressure in the framework of the finite element method analysis. An equivalentmodel of Hertzian contact between two cylinders is used for evaluating contact conditions at the major point of contact of meshing gears. For the purpose of fatigue-damage analysis, the model, which is used for prediction of the number of loading cycles required for initial fatigue damageto appear, is based on the Coffin-Manson relationship between deformations and loading cycles. On the basis of computational results, and with consideration of some particular geometrical and material parameters, theinitiation life of contacting spur gears in regard to contact fatigue damage can be estimated.
Keywords: machine elements, fracture mechanics, gears, contact fatigue, crack initiation, numerical modelling, teeth flanks
Published: 30.05.2012; Views: 1599; Downloads: 57
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2.
Pitting formation due to surface and subsurface initiated fatigue crack growth in contacting mechanical elements
Gorazd Fajdiga, Srečko Glodež, Janez Kramar, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: A computational model for simulation of surface and subsurface initiated fatigue crack growth due to contact loading is presented. The model is based on fracture mechanics theory where the required materials properties are obtained from common fatigue tests. For computational simulations an equivalent model of two contacting cylinders is used instead of simulating theactual contact of mechanical elements. The discretised model with the initial crack on or under the surface is then subjected to normal contact pressure, which takes into account the EHD-lubrication conditions, and tangential loading due to friction between contacting surfaces. The model considers also the moving contact of mechanical elements and for the surface initiated crack also the fluid trapped in the crack. The virtual crack extension method, implemented in the finite element method is then used for simulating the fatigue crack growth from the initial crack up to the formationof the surface pit. The numerical results correspond well with available experimental data. The described model can be used for simulation ofpitting phenomenon of contacting mechanical elements like gears, bearings, wheels, etc.
Keywords: fracture mechnaics, machine elements, gears, contact fatigue, pitting, subsurface crack initiation, computational analysis
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1296; Downloads: 72
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3.
Numerical analysis of the crack growth in a high loaded bolt connection
Marko Knez, Srečko Glodež, Janez Kramberger, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper deals with the research on the crack growth in a bolt connection of a lug for crane counter weight bars. Counter weight bars are structural elements subjected to very heavy loads and therefore need special attention. The main purpose of this research is to determine the number of load cycles required for a crack to propagate from initial to criticakl crack length, whenthe final failure can be expected to occur. All required material parameters and experimental results were determined in our previous research. The influence of the initial crack siye upon the remaining life of the lug is reserched numericallu by means of FE analysis and analytically by use of the corrected analystical model.
Keywords: fracture mechanics, cyclic loading, fatigue crack growth, service life prediction, numerical analysis, bolt connection
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1490; Downloads: 64
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4.
Numerical analysis of constraint effect on ductile tearing in strength mismatched welded CCT specimens using micromechanical approach
Bashir Younise, Marko Rakin, Bojan Medjo, Nenad Gubeljak, Dražan Kozak, Aleksandar Sedmak, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: In this paper, constraint effect on ductile fracture initiation and propagation has been studied. Three-dimensional finite element analyses of mismatched welded joints made of high strength steel, have been performed for centre-cracked tensile (CCT) specimens. Different weld widths and material mismatching ratios have been considered. Ductile fracture parameter, crack tip opening displacement at crack growth initiation (CTODi), has been obtained for centre-cracked tensile (CCT) specimens using local approach to fracture and compared with experimental results of single edge bend specimens. Micromechanical complete Gurson model has been applied to investigate fracture behaviour of cracked welded joints. Crack tip constraint has been analysed through stress triaxiality in order to study transferability of fracture parameters from one geometry to another.
Keywords: constraint effect, ductile fracture, finite element analysis, material mismatching, stress triaxiality, transferability
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 964; Downloads: 65
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5.
Determination of lower bound fracture toughness of a high strength low alloy steel welded joint
Nenad Gubeljak, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The use of high-strength low-alloy steels for high performance structures (e.g. pressure vessels and pipelines) requires high strength consumables to produce an overmatched welded joint. This globally overmatched multipass welded joint contains two significantly different microstructures, as welded and reheated. In this paper, the influence of weld metal microstructure on fracture behaviour is estimated in comparison with the fracture behaviour of composite microstructures (as welded and reheated). The lower bound of fracture toughness for different microstructures was evaluated by using the modified Weibull distortion. The results, obtained using specimens with crack front through the thickness, indicated low fracture toughness, caused by strength mismatching interaction along thevcrck front. In the case of through thickness specimens, at least one local brittle microstructure is incorporatedin the process zone at the vicinity of the crck tip. Hence, unstable fracture occurred with small or without stable crack propagation. Despite the fact that the differences between the impact toughness of a weld metal and that of base metal are insignificant, the future toughness of a weld metal can be significantly lower.
Keywords: welded joints, fracture mechanics, Crack tip opening displacement, high strength seeel weld, mismatch effects, fracture toughness, resistance curves
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1219; Downloads: 65
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6.
Microcrack initiation and growth in heat-risistant 15Kh2MFA steel under cyclic loading
P. Yasniy, V.B. Hlado, V. Hutsaylyuk, Tomaž Vuherer, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents the results of investigation of a nuclear reactor pressurevessel steel 15Kh2MFA of two strength levels under cyclic loading. Themechanism of microcrack formation on the surface and in the bulk of 15Kh2MFA steel under cyclic deformation was investigated. Analysis of the specimen surfaces has shown that microcracks are caused by cyclic sliding in grains most favourably oriented with respect to the direction of the maximum shear stresses. Transmission electron microscope investigations show that microcracks in the material inside the grains are formed mainly along the band-type dislocation structure parallel to the dislocation subboundary. During cyclic deformation, the dislocation density on the subboundaries increases, in the local areas the dislocation density becomes limiting and it reaches the plasticity limit and causes microcrack formation. The interrelation of the average length of microcracks and their surface density with the energy density of inelastic deformation has been found.
Keywords: material testing, nuclear reactor, pressure vessel, cyclic loading, cyclic deformation, dislocation structure, fatigue crack growth, TEM, fracture mechanics
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1008; Downloads: 18
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7.
Modelling of surface crack growth under lubricated rolling-sliding contact loading
Boštjan Zafošnik, Zoran Ren, Jože Flašker, Gennady Mishuris, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper describes modelling approach to computational simulation of surface crack growth subjected to lubricated rolling-sliding contact conditions. The model considers the size and orientation of the initial crack, normal and tangential loading due to rolling-sliding contact and the influence of fluid trapped inside the crack by a hydraulic pressure mechanism. The motion of the contact sliding load is simulated with different load cases. The strain energy density (SED) and maximum tangential stress (MTS) crack propagation criteria are modified to account for the influence of internal pressure along the crack surfaces due to trapped fluid. The developed model is used to simulate surface crack growth on a gear tooth flank, which has been also experimentally tested. It is shown that the crack growth path, determined with modified crack propagation criteria, is more accurately predicted than by using the criteria in its classical form.
Keywords: fracture mechanics, numerical methods, contact loading, finite element analysis, internal pressure, maximum tangential stress, strain energy density, surface crack growth
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1638; Downloads: 58
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8.
Effect of residual stresses on the fatigue crack propagation in welded joints
Nenad Gubeljak, Jožef Predan, Reinhard Pippan, Maks Oblak, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The effect of residual stress on the fatigue crack growth was investigated forcyclic tension. Three-point bend specimens were used with through thicknessnotches at the center line of the welded joint. The experiments were performed for different load amplitudes and load ratios under conditions of small-scale yielding. The influence of the residual stresses on fatigue crack growth was estimated by experimentally observed fatigue crack growth rate and measurement of residual stresses at the surface of specimen. This paper describes an approach taken in two models to estimate the residual stress effect on fatigue crack propagation and to predict remaining service life of awelded structure.
Keywords: fracture mechnaics, fatigue crack, crack growth, residual stresses, fatigue crack growh rate, X-ray
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1180; Downloads: 57
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9.
Crack tip shielding or anti-shielding due to smooth and discontinuous material inhomogeneities
N.K. Simha, Franz Dieter Fischer, Otmar Kolednik, Jožef Predan, G.X. Shan, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper describes a theoretical model and related computational methods forexamining the influence of inhomogeneous material properties on the crack driving force in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. Following the configurational forces approach, the crack tip shielding or anti-shielding dueto smooth (e.g. graded layer) and discontinuous (e.g. bimaterial interface)distributions in material properties are derived. Computational post-processing methods are described to evaluate these inhomogeneity effects.The utility of the theoretical model and computational methods is demonstrated by examining a bimaterial interface perpendicular to a crack in elastic and elastic-plastic compact tension specimens.
Keywords: fracture mechanics, fracture toughness, composite materials, layered material, inhomogeneity, cracks, finite element method, elastic bimaterials
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1167; Downloads: 55
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10.
On fracture behaviour of inhomogeneous materials - a case study for elastically inhomogeneous bimaterials
Otmar Kolednik, Jožef Predan, G.X. Shan, N.K. Simha, Franz Dieter Fischer, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents a case study, examining the influence of a sharp bimaterial interface on the effective crack driving force in a fracture mechanics specimen. The inhomogeneity of the elastic modulus in linear elasticand non-hardening and hardening elastic-plastic bimaterials is considered. The interface is perpendicular to the crack plane. The material properties and the distance between the crack tip and the interface are systematically varied. The effect of the material inhomogeneity is captured in form of a quantity called "material inhomogeneity term",▫$C_inh$▫. This term can be evaluated either by a simple post-processing procedure, following a conventional finite element stress analysis, or by computing the J-integral along a contour around the interface, ▫$J_int$▫. The effective crack driving force,▫$J_tip$▫, can be determined as the sum of ▫$C_inh$▫ and the nominally applied far-field crack driving force, ▫$J_far$▫. The results show that ▫$C_inh$▫ can be accurately determined by both methods even in cases where ▫$J_tip$▫-values are inaccurate. When a crack approaches a stiff/compliant interface,▫$C_inh$▫ is positive and ▫$J_tip$▫ becomes larger than ▫$J-far$▫. A compliant/stiff transition leads to a negative ▫$C_inh$▫, and ▫J_tip$▫ becomes smaller than ▫$J_far$▫. The material inhomogeneity term, ▫$C_inh$▫, can have the same order of magnitude as ▫$J_far$▫. Based on the numerical results, the dependencies of ▫$C_inh$▫ on the material parameters and the geometry are derived. Simple expressions are obtained to estimate ▫$C_inh$▫.
Keywords: mechanics of structures, fracture toughness, inhomogeneous materials, J-integral, crack driving force, interface, material force
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 823; Downloads: 9
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