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1.
SGLT2i for evidence based cardiorenal protection in diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease : a comprehensive review by EURECA-m and ERBP working groups of ERA
Patrick B. Mark, Pantelis Sarafidis, Robert Ekart, Charles J. Ferro, Olga Balafa, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, William G. Herrington, Patrick Rossignol, Lucia Del Vecchio, Jose M. Valdivielso, 2023, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue affecting an estimated 850 million people globally. The leading causes of CKD is diabetes and hypertension, which together account for >50% of patients with end-stage kidney disease. Progressive CKD leads to the requirement for kidney replacement therapy with transplantation or dialysis. In addition, CKD, is a risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease, particularly from structural heart disease and heart failure (HF). Until 2015, the mainstay of treatment to slow progression of both diabetic and many non-diabetic kidney diseases was blood pressure control and renin-angiotensin system inhibition; however, neither angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) nor angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduced cardiovascular events and mortality in major trials in CKD. The emergence of cardiovascular and renal benefits observed with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) from clinical trials of their use as anti-hyperglycaemic agents has led to a revolution in cardiorenal protection for patients with diabetes. Subsequent clinical trials, notably DAPA-HF, EMPEROR, CREDENCE, DAPA-CKD and EMPA-KIDNEY have demonstrated their benefits in reducing risk of HF and progression to kidney failure in patients with HF and/or CKD. The cardiorenal benefits—on a relative scale—appear similar in patients with or without diabetes. Specialty societies’ guidelines are continually adapting as trial data emerges to support increasingly wide use of SGLT2i. This consensus paper from EURECA-m and ERBP highlights the latest evidence and summarizes the guidelines for use of SGLT2i for cardiorenal protection focusing on benefits observed relevant to people with CKD.
Ključne besede: cardiorenal syndrome, cardiovascular, chronic renal failure, diabetic kidney disease, heart failure
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.02.2024; Ogledov: 96; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,05 MB)
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2.
Spermidine overrides INSR (insulin receptor)-IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor)-mediated inhibition of autophagy in the aging heart
Mahmoud Abdellatif, Frank Madeo, Guido Kroemer, Simon Sedej, 2022, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: Although attenuated IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) signaling has long been viewed to promote longevity in model organisms, adverse effects on the heart have been the subject of major concern. We observed that IGF1R is overexpressed in cardiac tissues from patients with end-stage non-ischemic heart failure, coupled to the activation of the IGF1R downstream effector AKT/protein kinase B and inhibition of ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1). Transgenic overexpression of human IGF1R in cardiomyocytes from mice initially induces physiological cardiac hypertrophy and superior function, but later in life confers a negative impact on cardiac health, causing macroautophagy/autophagy inhibition as well as impaired oxidative phosphorylation, thus reducing life expectancy. Treatment with the autophagy inducer and caloric restriction mimetic spermidine ameliorates most of these IGF1R-induced cardiotoxic effects in vivo. Moreover, inhibition of IGF1R signaling by means of a dominant-negative phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) mutant induces cardioprotective autophagy, restores myocardial bioenergetics and improves late-life survival. Hence, our results demonstrate that IGF1R exerts a dual biphasic impact on cardiac health, and that autophagy mediates the late-life geroprotective effects of IGF1R inhibition in the heart.
Ključne besede: heart failure, IGF1R, PI3K, human, insulin signaling, longevity, mitochondrial dysfunction, mouse
Objavljeno v DKUM: 08.08.2023; Ogledov: 228; Prenosov: 18
.pdf Celotno besedilo (619,72 KB)
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3.
Combination of lung ultrasound (a comet-tail sign) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in differentiating acute heart failure from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma as cause of acute dyspnea in prehospital emergency setting
Gregor Prosen, Petra Klemen, Matej Strnad, Štefek Grmec, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Introduction: We studied the diagnostic accuracy of bedside lung ultrasound (the presence of a comet tail sign), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and clinical assessment (modified Boston criteria) in differentiating heart failure (HF)- related acute dyspnea from pulmonary (COPD/asthma) related acute dyspnea in the prehospital setting. Methods: Prospective study was performed at the Center for Emergency Medicine Maribor, Slovenia, between July 2007 and April 2010. Two groups of patients were compared: HF-related acute dyspnea group (n = 129) vs pulmonary-related (asthma/COPD) acute dyspnea group (n = 89). All patients underwent lung ultrasound examination, along with basic laboratory, rapid NT-proBNP testing and chest X-ray. Results: Ultrasound comet tail sign has 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 100% negative predictive value (NPV) and 96% positive predictive value (PPV) for the diagnosis of HF. NT-proBNP (cut-off point 1000 pg/ml) has 92% sensitivity, 89% specificity, 86% NPV and 90% PPV. Boston modified criteria have 85% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 80% NPV and 90% PPV. Comparing the three methods, we found significant differences between ultrasound sign vs NT-proBNP (P<0.05) and Boston modified criteria (P<0.05). Combination of ultrasound sign and NT-proBNP has 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% NPV and 100% PPV. With ultrasound we can exclude HF in patients with pulmonary related dyspnea who have positive NT-proBNP (> 1000 pg/ml) and previous history of HF. Conclusions: Ultrasound comet tail sign alone or in combination with NT-proBNP has a high diagnostic accuracy in differentiating between acute HF and COPD/asthma causes of acute dyspnea in prehospital emergency setting.
Ključne besede: lungs, ultrasound, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, acute heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, acute dyspnea
Objavljeno v DKUM: 29.06.2017; Ogledov: 1860; Prenosov: 389
.pdf Celotno besedilo (420,76 KB)
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