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The Digital Pig: Automatic Systems for Behavior Detection in Weaned Pigs
Anja Žnidar, 2020, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: In this bachelor's thesis, we used machine learning techniques to detect pigs in group pens, which would help to improve the welfare and comfort of pigs. Mask-RCNN was used for object segmentation. The implementation was based on Resnet101. The goal was to achieve the highest possible precision in detection of the pig's body, head, and tail. We predicted that the accuracy will be the highest for body detection and lower for head and tail detection. We also concluded that the difference in precision and recall will be less than 10% between hand-labeled bounding boxes and the predicted bounding boxes from our model. As predicted, body detection represented the highest results, as the accuracy of head and tail detection was lower. The difference between precision and recall was 10% for body detection and higher than 10% for head and tail detection. Precision of the body detection was 96%, as the whole body is easier to detect. The head detection precision score was 66%. Tail detection precision was 77%, which is a large difference compared to the percentage of head detection. The use of machine learning in livestock farming could be a potentially useful tool for detecting welfare in pigs, as it would reduce the frequency of aggressive behaviors and the number of injuries. In the future, we want to refine our model to achieve higher precision for head and tail detection. Once the algorithm has clearly detected all the pigs in the image, we will try to refine the model to detect different forms of behavior. This technology would help us to evaluate welfare, which would be improved if necessary.
Keywords: pig, pig annotation, behavior, welfare, machine learning
Published: 08.09.2020; Views: 203; Downloads: 67
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Personality profiles and stress-coping strategies of Slovenian military pilots
Maja Meško, Damir Karpljuk, Mateja Videmšek, Iztok Podbregar, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: The performance of a pilot also depends on the pilot's personality profile and their stresscoping style. In our study we aimed to analyze, by means of the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) and the Coping Responses Inventory (CRI), the personality profiles, stress-coping strategies and the relationship between them among Slovenian military pilots. The study involved 120 respondents: 30 of whom were military pilots in the experimental group, while the other 90 were in the control groups. The control groups included sport pilots, the general population and soldiers with no involvement in aviation. The members of the control group were selected with regard to the characteristics of the experimental group members, so that both groups were equivalent in terms of relevant factors (e.g. gender, age, health state, level of education etc), thus participating in a study of equivalent pairs. A statistical analysis identified statistically significant differences between the groups in the following BFQ dimensions: energy, conscientiousness and emotional stability; in the dimensions of CRI 'cognitive avoidance' (cognitive effort to avoid realistic consideration of a problem); and 'emotional discharge or emptying' (behavioural attempts to alleviate tension by venting negative emotions). Results revealed that certain personality characteristics were differentially and significantly related to specific stress coping strategies adopted by military pilots.
Keywords: military pilots, Slovenia, personality, personality traits, coping behavior, coping, stress
Published: 19.03.2020; Views: 243; Downloads: 8
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The geo-mechanics behaviour of soft marine silts under a nearshore rubble-mound breakwater
Lien-Kwei Chien, Feng Tsung-Shen, Tsung-Ching Chen, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: In this study, the soft marine silts under a rubble-mound breakwater in Ma-Zu of west Taiwan are adopted as a test sample. The specimens were prepared by a new, remolded method at dry density and consolidated stresses. Tri-axial shear-strength tests were performed to evaluate the pore-water pressure and the shear strength. The test results show that the pore-water pressure increases gradually and is close to the critical values as the axial strain increases. In addition, under isotropic and K0 consolidation, both the c and c' of the soft marine silts were 0 kPa, which means that the silts do not have any shear resistance, just like fluid under a rubble-mound breakwater. Based on the linear-elasticity and the one-dimensional consolidation theory, the model of the settlement and stability was evaluated in SIGMA/W. The results show that the soft marine silts at the breakwater induced a displacement, greatly increasing with the filling rubble-mound loading. The figures and results can be referenced for a stability evaluation of the silt soil deposits under the rubble-mound breakwater. The results are useful for marine silts mechanics and a stability analysis for the planning, design, and related research on near-shore engineering.
Keywords: geo-mechanics behavior, soft marine silt, rubble-mound breakwater, settlement, numerical simulation mode
Published: 06.06.2018; Views: 519; Downloads: 43
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Analysis of interactions of key stakeholders on B2C e-markets
Aleksandar Marković, Sava Čavoški, Andrej Novović, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Background/purpose: This paper discusses the application of ABMS - agent-based modelling and simulation in the analysis of customer behaviour on B2C e-commerce websites as well as in the analysis of various business decisions upon the effects of on-line sales. The continuous development and dynamics in the field of e-commerce requires application of advanced decision-making tools. These tools must be able to process, in a short time period, a large amount of data generated by the e-commerce systems and enable the use of acquired data for making quality business decisions. Methodology: The methodology of the agent-based simulation used in this paper may significantly enhance the speed and quality of decision making in electronic trade. The models developed for the needs of this research aim to improve the use of practical tools for the evaluation of the B2C online sales systems in that they allow for an investigation into the outcomes of varied strategies in the e-commerce site management as regards customer behaviour, website visits, scope of sales, income earned, etc. Results: An agent-based simulation model developed for the needs of this research is able to track the interactions of key subjects in online sales: site visitors - prospective consumers, sellers with different business strategies, and suppliers. Conclusion: Simulation model presented in this paper can be used as a tool to ensure a better insight into the problem of consumer behavior on the Internet. Companies engaged in the B2C e-commerce can use simulation results to better understand their consumers, improve market segmentation and business profitability and test their business policies.
Keywords: ABMS, B2C, e-commerce, website, customer behavior
Published: 28.11.2017; Views: 649; Downloads: 60
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Analyzing hotel innovation behavior in the Balaton region of Hungary to identify best practices
Petra Gyurácz-Németh, Nikolett Horn, Nóra Friedrich, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: The goal of the research is to investigate the hotel innovation behavior in one of the most important tourism regions of Hungary. The Lake Balaton Region is a very popular area of the country with quite a short season (from the middle of June to August 20). The region is the second most visited area based on the number of guests and guest nights in Hungary. The topic of innovation plays a growing role in the Hungarian hotel sector as well, because competition is very high and keeping guests and employees can be a great challenge. The study involved both qualitative and quantitative research. The qualitative research aimed to identify the best practices of the Hotel Európa Fit****superior which introduced an “innovation by inspiring” strategy and applies several types of innovation in a highly recommended way. The respondents of the questionnaire included 28 hotel general managers (52% of the 54-person sample). The results showed a strong relationship between the type of the hotel and the number of innovations as well as the type of the hotel and the frequency of innovation.
Keywords: innovation behavior, hotel type, best practice, Hungary
Published: 03.11.2017; Views: 568; Downloads: 237
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Analyzing information seeking and drug-safety alert response by health care professionals as ew methods for surveillance
Alison Callahan, Igor Pernek, Gregor Štiglic, Jurij Leskovec, Howard Strasberg, Nigam Haresh Shah, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: Patterns in general consumer online search logs have been used to monitor health conditions and to predict health-related activities, but the multiple contexts within which consumers perform online searches make significant associations difficult to interpret. Physician information-seeking behavior has typically been analyzed through survey-based approaches and literature reviews. Activity logs from health care professionals using online medical information resources are thus a valuable yet relatively untapped resource for large-scale medical surveillance. Objective: To analyze health care professionals% information-seeking behavior and assess the feasibility of measuring drug-safety alert response from the usage logs of an online medical information resource. Methods: Using two years (2011-2012) of usage logs from UpToDate, we measured the volume of searches related to medical conditions with significant burden in the United States, as well as the seasonal distribution of those searches. We quantified the relationship between searches and resulting page views. Using a large collection of online mainstream media articles and Web log posts we also characterized the uptake of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) alert via changes in UpToDate search activity compared with general online media activity related to the subject of the alert. Results: Diseases and symptoms dominate UpToDate searches. Some searches result in page views of only short duration, while others consistently result in longer-than-average page views. The response to an FDA alert for Celexa, characterized by a change in UpToDate search activity, differed considerably from general online media activity. Changes in search activity appeared later and persisted longer in UpToDate logs. The volume of searches and page view durations related to Celexa before the alert also differed from those after the alert. Conclusions: Understanding the information-seeking behavior associated with online evidence sources can offer insight into the information needs of health professionals and enable large-scale medical surveillance. Our Web log mining approach has the potential to monitor responses to FDA alerts at a national level. Our findings can also inform the design and content of evidence-based medical information resources such as UpToDate
Keywords: internet log analysis, data mining, physicians, information-seeking behavior, drug safety surveillance
Published: 02.08.2017; Views: 826; Downloads: 110
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The connection between culture and organizational behavior
Sonja Treven, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper presents various approaches to studying cultures of different countries. The starting point is the Hofstede's dimensions of cultural values as well as Hall's approach to high- and low- context cultures and Trompenaars model of cultural differences. After that the interaction between culture and organizational behavior is discussed. A special attention to the impact of culture on motivation of employees, communication, conflict resolution and organizational changes is given.
Keywords: culture, corporate culture, company, organization, organizational culture, behavior, behaviorism, motivation, leadership, use of human capabilities
Published: 26.07.2017; Views: 823; Downloads: 286
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Authentic leadership to the future
Vlado Dimovski, Marko Ferjan, Miha Marič, Miha Uhan, Marko Jovanović, Matej Janežič, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Authentic leadership is the latest evolutionary stage in leadership development and emphasizes the leader's authenticity. The construct of authenticity was researched by ancient Greek philosophers as 'know thy-self ', and 'thy true self '. Authentic leadership began to develop after 2004. The main reason why the researchers place so much attention to authentic leadership is fact that authentic leadership reaches all of the employees in organizations. Authentic leaders must identify the strengths of their followers and help them with their development and integration towards a common goal, purpose, vision and identity of the organization. Authentic leadership is seen as the final stage in the development of leadership styles, properties of this leadership style, and the consequences of this style have not been fully explored. In our paper we will explore this new style of leadership and its implications.
Keywords: authentic leadership, leadership, human resources, organizational behavior, organization
Published: 24.07.2017; Views: 1146; Downloads: 346
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Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice
Jasmina Kerčmar, Stuart Tobet, Gregor Majdič, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female “attractiveness” was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.
Keywords: mice, social isolation, female sexual behavior, estrogen receptor α, puberty, adolescence
Published: 10.07.2017; Views: 654; Downloads: 329
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Haploinsufficiency for steroidogenic factor 1 affects maternal behavior in mice
Tanja Španić, Neža Grgurevič, Gregor Majdič, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), officially designated NR5A1, is essential for gonadal and adrenal development and for the normal structure of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), as demonstrated by SF-1 knockout mice (SF-1 KO), but much less is known about the possible effects of haploinsufficiency of the SF-1 gene. In the present study, maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous mice was evaluated. Behavioral tests revealed that SF-1 KO heterozygous females have impaired maternal behavior. In comparison to wild-type (WT) females, SF-1 KO heterozygous females retrieved significantly fewer pups into their nests, latency to retrieve and crouch over the pups was longer, and their nests were lower quality. As suggested by previous studies full dosage of SF-1 gene is needed for appropriate stress response and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, and this might present a mechanism through which maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous females is impaired.
Keywords: mice, stress, steroidogenic factor 1, maternal behavior
Published: 10.07.2017; Views: 478; Downloads: 271
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