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1.
The problem of gender in English-Slovene translation
Tamara Žerjav, 2010, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Ključne besede: translation, feminist translation theory, gender markedness, androcentrism
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 790; Prenosov: 29
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

2.
Do women see things differently than men do?
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender on brain activity. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved simple auditory and visual tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The attended task condition was based on the oddball paradigm. Respondents had to mentally count infrequent target stimuli - tones or shapes. In the unattended condition they just listened to tones or viewed different shapes. Gender related differences in EEG activity were only observed in the amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response and the P3 component. Women displayed higher amplitudes than men. A second finding was that these differences were more pronounced for the visual than for the auditory stimuli. No gender related differences were observed in the ERP latencies, as well as in the amplitudes of the P1-N1 complex, and the induced gamma response. The NIRS data showed that males in their frontal brain areas displayed a higher percentage of StO2 than did females; and males also showed a higher increase in %StO2 during task performance as compared with the resting condition. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males. The data are discussed in the theoretical framework of the evolutionary theory of human spatial sex differences.
Ključne besede: psychology, functional neuroimaging, brain activities, neuropsychology, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 855; Prenosov: 21
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

3.
Gender related differences in visual and auditory processing of verbal and figural tasks
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the present study was to investigate gender related differences in brain activity for tasks of verbal and figural content presented in the visual and auditory modality. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved four tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The main findings of the study can be summarized as follows. (1) Most pronounced differences between males and females were observed for the factor modality-visual/auditory. (2) Gender related differences in neuroelectric brain responses could be observed during the solution of auditory and visual tasks; however, on the behavioral level only for the visual tasks did females display shorter reaction times than males. The ERP amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response, P1, and P3 were higher in females than males, whereas the N4 amplitude was higher in males than females. The differences were more noticeable in the visual modality. The NIRS showed a more bilateral involvement of the frontal brain areas in females as compared with a more left hemispheric frontal activity in males. In the task conditions an increase in right hemispheric activity in females was observed; however, this increase was less pronounced in the visual than the auditory domain, indicating a more lateralized processing of visual stimuli in females. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males.
Ključne besede: psychology, neuropsychology, brain activities, visual processing, auditory processing, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1026; Prenosov: 28
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

4.
Spatial rotation and recognizing emotions : gender related differences in brain activity
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity - assessed with EEG methodology - while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2 alpha band. Males and females displayed an inverse IQ-activation relationship in just that domain in which they usually perform better: females in the emotional intelligence domain, and males in the visuospatial ability domain. A similar pattern of brain activity could also be observed for the male/female respondents with different levels of performance and emotional IQ. It was suggested that high ability representatives of both genders to some extent compensate for their inferior problem solving skills (males in emotional tasks and females in spatial rotation tasks) by increasing their level of attention.
Ključne besede: psychology, cognitive processes, emotional intelligence, EEG activities, problem complexity, brain, memory, spatial rotation, gender, event-related desynchronization
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1122; Prenosov: 16
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

5.
Gender and religious orientation
Sergej Flere, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Gender has been proven to be a substantial indicator of differences with respect to religiosity within Christianity. Females are always more frequentlyand intensively religious in comparison to males (Francis, 1997). The question of whether this holds for other religions remains unanswered. In this study we focus on university students in Catholic, Christian Orthodox andMuslim environments of Central Europe and in an American, predominantly Protestant environment. Religiosity is studied by differentiating between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity (Allport and Ross, 1967). If it were foundthat females are more social-extrinsic religious, one couldspeak of a sociological, instrumental and situational religiosity among females. On the contrary, one is closer to speaking of an immanent difference between the genders. Sociological (with the exception of socialization) and Freudian explanations are not confirmed. Psychological explanations, which include anxiety, authoritarianism and femininity (Bem,1981) are good at explaining thedifferences in religiosity between the genders.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, religious orientation, religious environments, religiosity, religious experiences, intrinsic orientation, extrinsic orientation, gender differences, gender
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 807; Prenosov: 25
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo

6.
THE USE OF PERSONAL NOUNS AND PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN ENGLISH: A CASE STUDY OF LINGUISTIC SEXISM
Valentina Ploj, 2015, diplomsko delo

Opis: Linguistic sexism, which was the main topic in this thesis, is a part of a larger phenomenon called sexism, which has always been present in our society through history but has been dealt with differently in different eras. It began when women started to feel left out of important professional functions and moreover when women were constrained to taking care of children and housekeeping chores. Women always felt they could have contributed so much more to the society but they always had to fight for it. Certain movements were created over the time led by strong, decisive women who were trying to make women matter just the same as men do. Because society changes, evolves and grows, the language also experiences various transformations. In this thesis, we have decided to look into the field of linguistic sexism considering different genres to see whether there are any differences in the use of language depending on who the publications are intended for and what field of interest they cover. We selected four publications covering topics of fashion and education: The New Review is a fashion-oriented appendix of the Independent on Sunday, GQ is a male-oriented magazine while the National Art Education Association News and Music Educators Journal, are educational, one from the field of visual arts and the other from the field of music. We focused on the use of gender specific and dual gender terms denoting personal nouns and pronouns. We analysed the language of the four publications, including articles, commercial advertisements and everything that was written in letters. The results showed the examples found as sexist in this thesis could be avoided to an extent, but not completely. There is a level of language that needs to be maintained but also not to be interfered with too much. Such interferences can distort language to the extent of incomprehension. Therefore, it is advised to take into account the linguistic restrictions, the circumstances and cultural and social guidelines to avoid linguistic sexism.
Ključne besede: sexism, linguistic sexism, gender specific, dual gender
Objavljeno: 19.01.2016; Ogledov: 514; Prenosov: 49
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,03 MB)

7.
Linguistic Relativism in the Case of Linguistic Gender and Number: A Comparison between English and Slovene
Tamara Kovačič, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: The master’s thesis deals with linguistic relativism in the case of grammatical gender and number of two languages: English and Slovene. Firstly, the thesis presents the origins of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which is of significant importance for the development of linguistic relativism. The hypothesis met with a wide response amongst researchers: some agreed with the ideas, whereas others did not. Linguistic relativism suggests that the language one speaks shapes their perception of the world. In order to prove such statement, several experiments were conducted. In addition, the thesis outlines the main characteristics of grammatical gender and number in English and the Slovene language. The empirical part includes the analysis of the results of the experiment that was conducted amongst native speakers of English and native speakers of the Slovene language. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used for the interpretation of the results. The results show limited influence of the structure of language on the linguistic processing of the speakers, thus only partially supporting Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. In the case of gender categorization the results showed that the Slovene speakers were affected by the grammatical gender. In this respect we can say that language can influence our perception of the world. In the case of grammatical number the Slovene speakers were not more sensitive to the dual. The results thus show limited influence of the structure of language on the linguistic processing of the speakers, thus only partially supporting the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
Ključne besede: Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, linguistic relativism, language and thought, grammatical gender and number, experiment
Objavljeno: 15.02.2016; Ogledov: 695; Prenosov: 52
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,79 MB)

8.
The Linguistic and Discursive Construction of Gender and Sexuality in the Translation of English Texts
Barbara Majcenovič Kline, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: Studies show that our ideas of gender and sexuality are closely linked with the language that is used to define and describe these two notions. It has been further proven that there is a very close relationship between issues related to sexuality and concepts such as gender, (political) power, exploitation, supremacy and mobbing, to name but a few. Social, cultural, political, historical and other discussions regarding questions such as what sexuality is and what is permissible, acceptable and even “normal”, are inevitably part of linguistic discourse. In this MA thesis I thus research and analyze the complexity and multifacetedness of the relationship between language, discourse, gender and sexuality in the translations of English texts. I focus on the translations of texts which could be considered ambiguous in regards to expressing gender. This refers to the co-dependence between the source text, male or female translator and culture, as well as the broader circumstances that influence the translation or target text. In the first part of the thesis I focus on the theoretical background and critical insights into the relationships between language, gender and sexuality. The next stage comprises a comparison of English texts from various media sources (classical and electronic) on both linguistic and discursive levels, with the translations of these texts into Slovene, Croatian and German provided by future translators. The second part of the thesis, the research, comprises two parts: first, I am interested in how these texts and their translations are dealt with by the students – future translators – from four faculties in Maribor, Graz, Zagreb and Split. I am further interested in the level of the respondents’ awareness regarding the appropriate use of politically correct expressions, which I assume they are able to use accordingly in their translations. The second part of the research presents data collected based on the questionnaire, which was answered by future translators immediately after completion of the survey. Since the students come from different backgrounds, I am mostly interested in the reasons and possible factors that have influenced their translation choices (of individual words, expressions (terms), phrases, etc.). There are two general assumptions based on the literature review and the analysis of the translations and answers to the questionnaires provided by the future translators. The first one refers to the target text – translation – which, in most cases, depends on the current culture, social environment and time period. The emphasis is placed on the co-dependence between the source text, translator (male or female) as well as culture and other broader background circumstances which influence the translation or the target text. This assumption emphasizes the importance of translators possessing a high level of knowledge and intercultural awareness. The latter was noticable in the translations under research, yet we are still, as regards politically correct expressions, in the process of introducing norms and guidelines on a higher, state level, which might be later generally applied. The second general assumption refers to cultural, social, political, historical and ideological paradigms which annul the ideal of a translation as embodying or reflecting neutral, impartial linguistic and discursive text fidelity. From the translations into three languages, I was able to establish that there are no ideal translations. Furthermore, it was extremely difficult to find gender neutral translations, because of the differences between the three languages analyzed in the study, which would fulfill expectations in the three culturally and politically different cultures according to their individual ideological guidelines. We also have to be aware of the rapid degree of globalization, progress and change which create differences and shape new rules, rendering the old ones obsolete.
Ključne besede: gender, sexuality, language, discourse, translation, political correctness
Objavljeno: 11.08.2016; Ogledov: 573; Prenosov: 51
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,15 MB)

9.
Mad or Misunderstood – Representations of Madness in British Drama
Irena Slapar, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: Madness has always fascinated as well as frightened people, which is why its mysterious and indefinite essence has served as an inexhaustible source of inspiration to authors in novels, poetry and plays, and has personified itself in the works of artists. Madness has been an important theme in drama, since it mystified and excited the writers of tragedies as long ago as in Ancient Greece, whereas it entered the British world of drama with the same intensity at the time of its greatest creativity and has remained there ever since. Although it has subsided for a while in certain periods of time, it has never completely diminished into oblivion. Towards the end of the 20th century it resurfaced and regained its importance as an indispensable way of expression of the younger generation of playwrights, which shocked audience and critics alike. The thesis analyses different manifestations of alleged madness and examines how the understanding of irrational behaviour changed through centuries. It questions if diagnosis of the same mental disturbance differed whether the patient was a woman or a man. It further on analyses what kind of treatment was considered to be the most appropriate in a certain time and age. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the representations of (alleged) female madness in the plays of Sarah Daniels.
Ključne besede: madness, drama, women writers, gender, feminism
Objavljeno: 20.10.2016; Ogledov: 354; Prenosov: 49
.pdf Celotno besedilo (883,11 KB)

10.
Gender ideologies in English and Slovene
Katja Plemenitaš, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The article deals with the concept of linguistic sexism in the cross-cultural context. It compares the generally accepted guidelines for avoiding linguistic sexism in English and Slovene, exemplified by two guides on non-sexist use of English. It is argued that in English non-sexist language strives for gender neutrality, whereas in Slovene it strives for gender specificity. The reasons for the differences between the perceptions of sexism in English and Slovene are examined by taking into account the linguistic expression of gender and the cultural and historical context in which both languages have developed. The use of semantic gender in English, as opposed to the use of grammatical gender in Slovene, is treated as one of the factors influencing the approach to the non-sexist use of language in both languages. Strategies for non-sexist expression and their rebuttals are discussed in the context of predominant cultural ideologies about gender and presuppositions regarding the link between social change and linguistic reform.
Ključne besede: English language, Slovene language, sexism, gender, nonsexist use of language
Objavljeno: 16.05.2017; Ogledov: 292; Prenosov: 50
.pdf Celotno besedilo (109,25 KB)
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